Christopher Addison

Christopher Addison

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Christopher Addison, the son of Robert Addison (1838–1899), was born at the Willows Farm, Hogsthorpe, Lincolnshire, on 19th June 1869. His father, later moved to a much larger farm of 200 acres at Stallingborough, near Grimsby.

In 1882 Addison was sent off to Trinity College, Harrogate. An outstanding student, he won a place at Sheffield Medical School and he did his training at St Bartholomew's Hospital, where he graduated with honours.

Addison specialized in the field of human anatomy and in 1893 he gained his doctorate from the University of London. While a medical student he developed a strong interest in politics. His experiences as a doctor in London's East End, resulted in him becoming aware of the link between poverty and ill-health. Addison rejected his father's conservatism and joined the Liberal Party. His marriage to Isobel Mackinnon Gray, a Christian Socialist, in 1902, reinforced his radical political views.

Addison's research as a physiologist and anatomist resulted in him becoming a lecturer at the Royal College of Surgeons. He then moved to Charing Cross Hospital, where he later became dean. In 1904–6 he served as secretary of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain.

In 1907 Addison was adopted as Liberal Party candidate for the Hoxton division of Shoreditch. Addison was a follower of David Lloyd George, who as Chancellor of the Exchequer, had introduced the Old Age Pensions Act, that provided between 1s. and 5s. a week to people over seventy. To pay for these pensions Lloyd George had to raise government revenues by an additional £16 million a year. In 1909 Lloyd George announced what became known as the People's Budget. This included increases in taxation. Whereas people on lower incomes were to pay 9d. in the pound, those on annual incomes of over £3,000 had to pay 1s. 2d. in the pound. Lloyd George also introduced a new supertax of 6d. in the pound for those earning £5000 a year. Other measures included an increase in death duties on the estates of the rich and heavy taxes on profits gained from the ownership and sale of property. Other innovations in Lloyd George's budget included labour exchanges and a children's allowance on income tax.

The Conservatives, who had a large majority in the House of Lords, objected to this attempt to redistribute wealth, and made it clear that they intended to block these proposals. David Lloyd George reacted by touring the country making speeches in working-class areas on behalf of the budget and portraying the nobility as men who were using their privileged position to stop the poor from receiving their old age pensions. After a long struggle Lloyd George finally got his budget through parliament.

In the general election of January 1910, Addison captured Hoxton with a 338 majority. In the following general election that December he increased his majority to 694. With the House of Lords extremely unpopular with the British people, the Liberal government decided to take action to reduce its powers. The 1911 Parliament Act drastically cut the powers of the Lords. They were no longer allowed to prevent the passage of 'money bills' and it also restricted their ability to delay other legislation to three sessions of parliament.

Lloyd George's next reform was the 1911 National Insurance Act. This gave the British working classes the first contributory system of insurance against illness and unemployment. All wage-earners between sixteen and seventy had to join the health scheme. Each worker paid 4d a week and the employer added 3d. and the state 2d. In return for these payments, free medical attention, including medicine was given. Those workers who contributed were also guaranteed 7s. a week for fifteen weeks in any one year, when they were unemployed.

Addison, who was a member of the British Medical Association advisory committee on the bill, helped to get the measure passed in the House of Commons. As Kenneth O. Morgan has pointed out: "He (Addison) persuaded Lloyd George to frame concessions to the medical profession on the make-up of the new health committees, the terms of service under the new act, and the levels of remuneration. His campaigning did much to persuade the doctors to come to terms with Lloyd George's measure. From that time onwards, Lloyd George regarded the unassuming Dr Addison with high respect for his administrative skills and also his moral courage. They worked closely together in 1912–14 on behalf of a range of radical causes, health and housing, a new Medical Research Council, women's suffrage, Ireland, and the land taxes included in Lloyd George's budget of April 1914."

On 8th August 1914, Henry Asquith, the prime minister, appointed Addison as parliamentary secretary to the Board of Education. On the left-wing of the party, Addison had been initially opposed the foreign policy of Sir Edward Grey, but on the outbreak of the First World War, he gave the government his full support.

In May 1915 Addison was appointed as under-secretary to David Lloyd George, the new Minister of Munitions. Lloyd George gave Addison the job of costing contracts and in negotiations with arms manufacturers and the unions.

Addison supported Lloyd George's calls for military conscription. The coalition government was impressed with Lloyd George's abilities as a war minister and began to question the prime minister's leadership of the country during this crisis. In December, 1916, Addison and Lloyd George agreed to collaborate with the Conservatives in the cabinet to remove Herbert Asquith from power. When the plot was successful, Lloyd George appointed Addison as his new Minister of Munitions. Over the next six months he concentrated on the production of tanks that became a major factor in the war on the Western Front.

In July 1917, Winston Churchill became Minister of Munitions and Addison moved to the new Ministry of Reconstruction, concerned with post-war social and economic planning. This involved issues that he felt strongly about such as health and housing. The government accepted his proposal that it should establish a Ministry of Health.

An energetic war leader, David Lloyd George received a lot of credit for Britain's eventual victory over the Triple Alliance. Lloyd George's decision to join the Conservatives in removing Herbert Asquith in 1916 split the Liberal Party. In the 1918 General Election, many Liberals supported candidates who remained loyal to Asquith. Despite this, Lloyd George's Coalition group won 459 seats and had a large majority over the Labour Party and members of the Liberal Party who had supported Asquith.

In January 1919 Addison became president of the Local Government Board, with the responsibility of fulfilling the government's pledges of post-war reform. His first task was setting up a new Ministry of Health. He also introduced the Housing and Town Planning Act which launched a massive new programme of house building by the local authorities. This included a government subsidy to cover the difference between the capital costs and the income earned through rents from working-class tenants. Morgan has argued: "Controversy dogged the housing programme from the start. Progress in house building was slow, the private enterprise building industry was fragmented, the building unions were reluctant to admit unskilled workers, the local authorities could hardly cope with their massive new responsibilities, and Treasury policy overall was unhelpful. In addition, the costs of the Treasury subsidy began to soar, with uncontrolled prices of raw materials leading to apparently open-ended subventions from the state... However, Addison could ultimately claim that, in spite of all difficulties, 210,000 high-quality houses were built for working people, and that an important new social principle of housing as a social service had been enacted."

During the 1918 General Election campaign, David Lloyd George had promised comprehensive reforms to deal with education, housing, health and transport. However, he was now a prisoner of the Conservative Party who had no desire to introduce these reforms. Addison did what he could but he was a constant target for all those who felt the government was being too socialistic. His radicalism annoyed Lloyd George and in March 1921 he was moved to the anomalous post of minister without portfolio.

On 14th July 1922, Addison resigned from the government and in a speech in the House of Commons he denounced the government for its broken promises on social reform. Later, he wrote a pamphlet, The Betrayal of the Slums (1922), that was fierce attack on the policies of the Lloyd George government. Deprived of Addison's support, Lloyd George was forced from office in October 1922.

Addison, who stood as as an independent Liberal at Hoxton, finished a poor third in the 1922 General Election. In the 1924 General Election, he stood as a Labour candidate at Hammersmith South, but was unsuccessful. He now spent much time in writing, notably in producing two-volume reminiscences, Politics from Within (1924), and Practical Socialism (1926). Over the next few years Addison became primarily concerned with rural issues and advocated the nationalization of land.

In the 1929 General Election Addison was returned to the house as Labour MP for Swindon. The new prime minister, Ramsay MacDonald, appointed him as parliamentary secretary for agriculture. In June 1930 he succeeded Noel Buxton as minister for agriculture within the cabinet.

In 1930 Dr Charles Brook met Dr Ewald Fabian, the editor of Der Sozialistische Arzt and the head of Verbandes Sozialistischer Aerzte in Germany. Fabian said he was surprised that Britain did not have an organisation that represented socialists in the medical profession. Brook responded by arranging a meeting to take place on 21st September 1930 at the National Labour Club. As a result it was decided to form the Socialist Medical Association. Brook was appointed as Secretary of the SMA and Somerville Hastings became the first President. Addison joined the SMA as did Hyacinth Morgan, Reginald Saxton, Alex Tudor-Hart, Archie Cochrane, Christopher Addison, John Baird, Alfred Salter, Barnett Stross, Edith Summerskill, Robert Forgan and Richard Doll.

The Socialist Medical Association agreed a constitution in November 1930, "incorporating the basic aims of a socialised medical service, free and open to all, and the promotion of a high standard of health for the people of Britain". The SMA also committed itself to the dissemination of socialism within the medical profession. The SMA was open to all doctors and members of allied professions, such as dentists, nurses and pharmacists, who were socialists and subscribed to its aims. International links were established through the International Socialist Medical Association, based in Prague, an organisation that had been established by Dr Ewald Fabian.

As the new Minister of Agriculture, Christopher Addison launched a series of plans to increase food production. As one historian has pointed out: "He (Addison) pressed for import boards for cereal growers, quotas for production, and new powers for local authorities to take over land for cultivation. The most important of his proposals, however, was his Agricultural Marketing Bill of 1931. This measure, by raising the price for the producer, lowering it for the consumer, and fostering an overall expansion of agriculture through guaranteed prices and regular price reviews, was to inaugurate a long-term revolution in policy."

The election of the Labour Government coincided with an economic depression and Ramsay MacDonald was faced with the problem of growing unemployment. MacDonald asked Sir George May, to form a committee to look into Britain's economic problem. When the May Committee produced its report in July, 1931, it suggested that the government should reduce its expenditure by £97,000,000, including a £67,000,000 cut in unemployment benefits. MacDonald, and his Chancellor of the Exchequer, Philip Snowden, accepted the report but when the matter was discussed by the Cabinet, the majority, including Addison, voted against the measures suggested by the May Committee. Addison denounced it as a policy introduced to placate foreign bankers that would seriously erode standards of public health and education.

MacDonald was angry that his Cabinet had voted against him and decided to resign. When he saw George V that night, he was persuaded to head a new coalition government that would include Conservative and Liberal leaders as well as Labour ministers. Most of the Labour Cabinet totally rejected the idea and only three, Philip Snowden, Jimmy Thomas and John Sankey agreed to join the new government. MacDonald was determined to continue and his National Government introduced the measures that had been rejected by the previous Labour Cabinet.

In October, 1931, Ramsay MacDonald called an election. The 1931 General Election was a disaster for the Labour Party with only 46 members winning their seats. Addison was one of those Labour MPs who lost his seat. MacDonald, now had 556 pro-National Government MPs and had no difficulty pursuing the policies suggested by Sir George May.

In July 1936, Isabel Brown, at the Relief Committee for the Victims of Fascism in London, received a telegram from Socorro Rojo Internacional, based in Madrid, asking for help in the struggle against fascism in Spain. Brown approached the Socialist Medical Association about sending medical help to Republicans fighting in the Spanish Civil War.

Brown contacted Hyacinth Morgan, who in turn saw Dr Charles Brook. According to Jim Fyrth, the author of The Signal Was Spain: The Spanish Aid Movement in Britain, 1936-1939 (1986): "Morgan saw Dr Charles Brook, a general practitioner in South-East London, a member of the London County Council and founder and first Secretary of the Socialist Medical Association, a body affiliated to the Labour Party. Brook, who was a keen socialist and supporter of the people's front idea, though not sympathetic to Communism, was the main architect of the SMAC. At lunch-time on Friday 31 July, he saw Arthur Peacock, the Secretary of the National Trade Union Club, at 24 New Oxford Street. Peacock offered him a room at the club for a meeting the following afternoon, and office facilities for a committee."

Somerville Hastings, the President of the SMA, was keen to help the struggle against fascism and at a meeting on 8th August 1936 it was decided to form a Spanish Medical Aid Committee. Dr. Christopher Addison was elected President and the Marchioness of Huntingdon agreed to become treasurer. Other supporters included Leah Manning, George Jeger, Philip D'Arcy Hart, Frederick Le Gros Clark, Lord Faringdon, Arthur Greenwood, George Lansbury, Victor Gollancz, D. N. Pritt, Archibald Sinclair, Rebecca West, William Temple, Tom Mann, Ben Tillett, Eleanor Rathbone, Julian Huxley, Harry Pollitt and Mary Redfern Davies.

Leah Manning later recalled: "We had three doctors on the committee, one representing the TUC and I became its honorary secretary. The initial work of arranging meetings and raising funds was easy. It was quite common to raise £1,000 at a meeting, besides plates full of rings, bracelets, brooches, watches and jewellery of all kinds... Isabel Brown and I had a technique for taking collections which was most effective, and, although I was never so effective as Isabel (I was too emotional and likely to burst into tears at a moment's notice), I improved. In the end, either of us could calculate at a glance how much a meeting was worth in hard cash."

The First British Hospital was established by Kenneth Sinclair Loutit at Grañén near Huesca on the Aragon front. Other doctors, nurses and ambulance drivers at the hospital included Reginald Saxton, Alex Tudor-Hart, Archie Cochrane, Penny Phelps, Rosaleen Ross, Aileen Palmer, Peter Spencer, Patience Darton, Annie Murray, Julian Bell, Richard Rees, Nan Green, Lillian Urmston, Thora Silverthorne and Agnes Hodgson.

According to Jim Fyrth, the author of The Signal Was Spain: The Spanish Aid Movement in Britain, 1936-1939 (1986): "In the spring of 1937 the International Fund opened a 1,000-bed military hospital in a former training college at Onteniente, between Valencia and Alicante. With four operating theatres, eight wards, a blood transfusion unit and the most up-to-date equipment, it was described by Dr Morgan, the TUC Medical Adviser, as being the most efficient hospital in Spain."

On 22nd May 1937, Addison became the only Labour Party peer to be created by Neville Chamberlain, the new prime minister and went to the House of Lords as Baron Addison. Over the next two years he was a fierce critic of the government's foreign policy. This included the policy of non-intervention during the Spanish Civil War and its appeasement policy towards Adolf Hitler.

During the Second World War the influence of the Socialist Medical Association increased. In the 1945 General Election, twelve SMA members were elected to the House of Commons and there was now a concerted effort to persuade the government to introduce a National Health Service. It was hoped that Clement Attlee would appoint Dr. Edith Summerskill as Minister of Health. However, Attlee rejected this advice and Aneurin Bevan was appointed instead.

Although he was seventy-six years old, Attlee granted him the title, Viscount Addison of Stallingborough, and appointed him as leader of the House of Lords. According to Harold Wilson, members of the cabinet deferred to his experience. He took a particular interest in social welfare, and gave Aneurin Bevan backing with the creation of the NHS.

The House of Lords had a huge majority of hereditary Conservative Party peers at a time of a massive Labour Party majority in the House of Commons. Clement Attlee depended on Addison's statesmanship to get this acts of reform through Parliament.

After the Labour Party won a narrow majority in the 1950 General Election, Addison remained a member of his cabinet. He was among those who tried to persuade Aneurin Bevan and Harold Wilson not to resign from the government over health service charges in the spring of 1951. He left office after Winston Churchill and the Conservative Party won the 1951 General Election.

Christopher Addison died of cancer at his home, Neighbours, at Radnage, on 11th December 1951. He left two sons and two daughters.

350 S. Rte. 53
Addison, Illinois 60101


Private Company
Incorporated: 1980
Employees: 600
Sales: $300 million (1996 est.)
SICs: 5999 Miscellaneous Retail Stores, Not Elsewhere Classified

Company Perspectives:

Our Mission: We are committed to providing opportunities for individuals to develop their God-given talents and skills to their fullest potential for the benefit of themselves, their families, our customers, and the company. We are dedicated to enhancing the quality of family life by providing quality kitchen products supported by service and information for our consultants and customers.

Classified among Inc. magazine's 500 fastest-growing privately-held businesses, The Pampered Chef, Ltd. is one of America's top direct-selling organizations. Over the course of its less than two decades in business, the operation has grown from a one-woman show in a suburban Chicago kitchen to a staff of 600 in a 200,000-plus square-foot headquarters building with sales of over $200 million. The Pampered Chef's army of over 25,000 "kitchen consultants" across the United States sells a line of about 150 professional-quality kitchen tools through more than 30,000 at-home "kitchen shows" every week. The stunning growth of "The Kitchen Store That Comes to Your Door" mirrors two important trends of the 1980s and early 1990s: the proliferation of home-based businesses and "cocooning."

The Pampered Chef was founded in 1980 by Doris Christopher, who like many women in her generation sought to balance a vital professional career with a fulfilling home life. Having interrupted her career as a home economics teacher with the University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service to raise her two daughters from birth to school age in the late 1970s, the 35-year-old Christopher found herself at a crossroads. As she described it in an April 1996 interview for the Chicago Tribune, Christopher began to seek "a part-time job that would allow me to be a mom too." Quickly narrowing her focus to self-employment opportunities that capitalized on her interests and experience in the kitchen, she investigated catering and retail sales of cooking utensils. But she eliminated both these options because catering demanded long, odd hours, and retailing required a high capital investment. Husband Jay urged her to launch a party-plan, direct-selling operation á la Tupperware, but Doris balked, recalling in a November 1996 Success piece that "I thought home parties were a waste of time, that perhaps the products were overpriced."

But with the continuing support of her spouse, who reminded her that her business could be set up in any way she wished, Christopher began to realize that her cooking and teaching expertise was perfectly suited to the demonstration techniques often used in direct selling, and that there was an untapped market for professional-quality, multi-use kitchen gadgets. Armed with this core concept and a $3,000 cash-out from a life insurance policy, the mom-turned-entrepreneur bought a dozen each of about 70 kitchen gadgets from Chicago's wholesale Merchandise Mart. The Pampered Chef would not require one more dime of additional financing over the course of its first decade-and-a-half in business, funding all its growth from cash flow.

Christopher set her home-selling events apart from their predecessors by calling them "kitchen shows" and naming her sales representatives "kitchen consultants." She scheduled her first kitchen show for October 1980, avoiding what she called the "silly games" that characterized other home selling parties and opting instead for an entertaining evening of cooking demonstrations, eating the fruits of the demo, and some low-pressure selling. That first night's recipe was leavened with trepidation: Christopher later recalled that "during the entire drive to my first show, I vowed that I would never, ever do this again. My stomach was in knots. Of course, on the drive home, I knew differently."

Exponential Growth in 1980s and Early 1990s

This modest beginning belied the phenomenal growth to come Christopher sold $10,000 worth of kitchen gadgets in her first quarter in business. She brought in a friend as a part-time sales representative in May 1981, and had recruited a total of 12 kitchen consultants by the end of the year. Sales passed $200,000 by 1983, and more than doubled in 1984. Warehousing of the burgeoning business's products outgrew the Christopher family's household basement that year, when TPC's headquarters were moved to a 2,500 square-foot building. By 1987, the business generated by the company's more than 200 sales representatives demanded a full-time purchasing, warehousing, and distribution staff. Husband Jay quit his job as a marketing executive that year to join his wife's company as executive vice-president of operations. By the end of the decade, TPC boasted 700 kitchen consultants. Coverage in nationally-circulated magazines in the early 1990s brought another wave of consultants on board, and by 1993 the company had sales representatives in all fifty states.

While direct, demonstrative selling has proven a powerful marketing method for TPC, its sourcing of unique and useful kitchen tools was also vitally important. In 1995 Christopher told Inc. magazine's Robert A. Mamis that "People I knew didn't like to cook, because it wasn't easy for them. Part of me said, 'Maybe I can never convert them.' But another part said, 'They're using knives that aren't sharp and forks with missing tines. If they had the right tools, it would be fun."' But finding the right tools wasn't easy for the average cook they were expensive rarities in retail stores, and even if a budding chef found them, she'd likely have an even harder time figuring out how to use and care for them properly.

Christopher sought to fill this market void with a line of high-quality, multi-purpose wares. She assembled an array of about 150 products ranging from peelers and juicers to bakeware and cookware, about one-third of which were exclusive to TPC. Although TPC often has a hand in the development and refinement of the products it carries--making them more ergonomic or combining several functions in a single tool, for example--it does not manufacture them. Many are emblazoned with their makers' names and marks, then packaged in TPC boxes with the marketer's use-and-care information. Believing that the origin of the utensils was far less important to her customers than knowing how to use them, Christopher created an in-house test kitchen to develop simple yet innovative recipes and menus that used TPC products. While many of the company's gadgets have more than one use--the "Bar-B-Boss," for example, incorporated a bottle-opener, fork, and knife in one grill tool--TPC's creatively-written recipes often require more than one TPC tool. Something as simple as a tray of crudités can call for three separate TPC tools: a v-shaped cutter, lemon zester, and "garnisher" (a wavy cutter). A plan for a whole meal might specify more than a dozen different products. When compiled in a company cookbook and used in kitchen shows, these recipes became powerful selling tools.

Years of trial and error resulted in fairly simple pricing and commission plans. Christopher arrives at an individual item's retail price by multiplying its wholesale cost by two. An initial investment of $100 buys a new kitchen consultant a set of about two dozen kitchen gadgets to use in demonstrations. As new utensils are introduced (two or three times each year), sales reps are required to purchase samples for demonstration purposes. Christopher "keeps faith" with her sales reps by keeping all new introductions--even obvious dogs--on the line for at least one year.

Following recipes written with TPC tools in mind, kitchen consultants guide kitchen show attendees in the use and care of the equipment. The consultants--99 percent of them women--start out earning a 20 percent commission on gross sales and earn an extra 2 percent after exceeding $15,000 in sales. The chief executive who had started out seeking a part-time job didn't expect her recruits to commit to a 40-hour (or more) week instead, she required a meager $200 bimonthly sales quota. On top of commissions, incentives for prolific sellers included all-expenses-paid family vacations to Disney World. TPC literature emphasized that a career in direct sales "is considered by many to be a ground-floor opportunity with no glass ceiling."

That assertion was perhaps best exemplified by Doris Christopher herself, for what started out as a part-time job had turned into the chief executiveship of a multi-million-dollar nationwide venture by the mid-1990s. Although the founder has commented only half-jokingly that she might not have launched TPC had she known what she was getting into, the effort has made her a millionaire many times over. When growth began to spiral out of the entrepreneur's control, she was compelled to hire outsiders with expertise in the management of large, growing businesses.

Aside from her millions, The Pampered Chef has also earned Christopher national recognition. In 1992 the School of Human Resources and Family Studies Home Economics Alumni Association at her alma mater, the University of Illinois, recognized her with an Award of Merit. Ernst & Young, Inc., and Merrill Lynch named her a regional National Entrepreneur of the Year in 1994, and Inc. gave her a tongue-in-cheek MBA--a "Master of Bootstrapping Administration"--in 1995.

TPC's charitable activities were in keeping with the company's food orientation. Launched in 1991, its "Round-Up from the Heart" promotion set aside $1 for every kitchen show hosted by its representatives between September 1 and December 31 of each year, and encourages customers to round their orders up to the nearest dollar. The firm donated these extra funds--a total of over $1.3 million in its first five years&mdashø Second Harvest food banks across the country.

Americans spent increasing amounts of their free time, not to mention disposable income, on entertaining at home in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Kitchens were recognized as the "heart and hearth" of the household. Many categories of consumer goods--including cookware--were buoyed by this strong and ongoing trend known as "nesting" or "cocooning." Given retail analysts' predictions that this homeward movement would continue for decades, The Pampered Chef appeared poised to build on its success. Although Christopher had grown rather tight-lipped about her privately-owned company's financial status by the early 1990s, she did reveal that she expected the firm to generate $300 million in revenues in 1996. Furthermore, the businesswoman predicted that "a billion dollars isn't far in our future."

Fitzpatrick, Michele L., "Recipe for Success," Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1996, Section 17, pp. 1, 7.
Mamis, Robert A., "Master of Bootstrapping Administration," Inc., August 1995, pp. 40-43.
"The Pampered Chef Story," Food, Family & Friends: Quick & Easy Recipes For Everyday Occasions, New York: Time-Life Custom Publishing, 1995, pp. 5-9.
Piccininni, Ann, "Home Parties: Mixing Selling with Socializing--There's Also a Future in Management," Chicago Tribune, July 26, 1992, p. 18SW.
Rodkin, Dennis, "Up the Down Economy," Chicago, May 1992, pp. 85-91.
Warshaw, Michael, "Home-Based $300 Million," Success, November 1996, p. 23.

Source: International Directory of Company Histories , Vol. 18. St. James Press, 1997.

Sir Christopher Addison, Viscount Addison of Stallingborough

Christopher Addison was born on the 19th June 1869, at Hogsthorpe in Lincolnshire where his family had been farmers for many generations. His father, Robert, and his elder brothers carried on the family tradition his mother, Susan, was the daughter of Charles Fanthorpe, a customs official in Newcastle. On neither side of his family was there any connection with medicine or politics. Even as a child, Addison showed an interest in politics, haranguing his playmates and family. Perhaps for this reason his first choice of a career was the law.

He was educated at Trinity College, Harrogate, and at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital, London. Early in his undergraduate career his promise was noted, and, at a time when anatomy bulked more largely in medical studies than now, it was in this field that he attracted attention. In 1892 he became demonstrator in anatomy at the medical school, Sheffield, and four years later, when a chair of anatomy was created, he was appointed to it. It was during this period that he did his work on the topographical anatomy of the abdomen, establishing as his point of reference the transpyloric, or Addison’s, plane (J. Anat. (Lond.), 1899, 33, 565-86).

In 1901 he delivered a course of Hunterian lectures at the Royal College of Surgeons and later that year became special lecturer in anatomy at Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, where he subsequently became dean and was deeply involved in university organisation. In 1907 he became lecturer in anatomy at St. Bartholomew’s Hospital. But he had not lost his ambition to enter politics, and contemporaries recalled that he was as likely to be studying political economy as anatomy.

He was adopted as Liberal candidate for Hoxton in 1907 and returned as Member in 1910. He retained his lectureship in anatomy at his old hospital until 1913, but thereafter his life was entirely devoted to politics, and it so happened that in that period many measures of social policy came forward on which his medical background enabled him to exert great influence.

Addison came into Parliament at the time when the then Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr David Lloyd George, was introducing the National Health Insurance Act, and it was his criticisms of some of the original provisions that first brought him to ministerial attention. Without doubt his suggestions removed some of the acrimony from a controversial situation and early established his reputation for friendly yet firm good sense. Within four years he was appointed a junior minister in the Board of Education but then all was altered by the outbreak of the First World War.

Going with Mr. Lloyd George to the Ministry of Munitions in 1915, he succeeded him in the following year as Minister. In this latter post, however, he remained for little more than a year before becoming Minister of Reconstruction and thereby intimately concerned with the interests of medicine.

Military conscription had brought forcibly to public notice the general health and development of the people, and there was a firm determination that, after the war, a Ministry of Health should be created. As Minister in charge of Reconstruction it was one of Addison’s tasks to bring this into being, and in 1919 he became the first Minister of Health. In these tasks Addison was intimately associated with two great figures, the philosopher-statesman Lord Haldane of Cloan, and the imaginative civil servant Sir Robert Morant, and together they devised measures that long stood the test of time.

A typical example of Addison’s foresight was his provision for medical research. A Medical Research Committee, of which Addison was a member, had been brought into being as a result of the National Health Insurance Act of 1911. In 1918 it was generally assumed that this would become the research department of the new Ministry of Health. But Addison, with his own personal experience of research, refused to allow this, and insisted that research should be set up independently of the executive departments of government, which necessarily must be guided by political considerations.

As a result the Medical Research Council, which was created in 1920, was established by Royal Charter and placed under the Privy Council. In 1922 Addison lost his seat in Parliament. Thereafter he joined the Labour party and in 1929 was returned as Member for Swindon. In the Labour Government he became Minister of Agriculture, a subject in which he had always been closely interested. He lost his seat again in 1931 but regained it in 1934, only to lose it the next year. He was considered, however, to be too valuable to lose, and in 1937 he was created a Baron.

Following the return of a Labour Government in 1945 he held a succession of ministerial posts, culminating in that of Lord President of the Council throughout the whole of this period he was the leader of his party in the House of Lords. In this latter capacity his fairness, benignity and sense produced a concert in working that compelled the respect of friends and opponents alike. It was during this time, nearly forty years after he had left academic life for politics, that Addison again came into contact with the interests of his earlier life.

In 1948 he became chairman of the Medical Research Council, the plan for which he had presented to the Cabinet just thirty years earlier. Despite his age he was as alert and fresh minded as those who were many years his junior, and his appreciation of natural realities was undimmed. A change of government occurred during his period of office, but such was the respect in which he was held that no suggestion was made that he should be replaced. It was his hope to continue as chairman when ill health made him resign his ministerial office.

Addison received many honours. In one he was unique: he was the only medical man to receive the Order of the Garter. Although his prominent services were in politics, he never ceased to think as a medical man. His profession can indeed count itself fortunate that during the crucial social changes that occurred during his political life, a man of his integrity, realism and understanding was in the inner councils where decisions were made. In 1902 he married Isobel, daughter of Archibald Gray of Holland Park. She died in 1934, leaving him with two sons and two daughters. In 1937 he married Dorothy, daughter of Mr J. P. Low.

Christopher Addison: a realist in pursuit of dreams

Addison was the only politician present at the start and end of the legislative process that produced the National Health Service. Having established a national reputation as an anatomist at the age of 41, he abandoned medicine for politics, entering Parliament in 1910 as a Liberal, moving to Labour in 1923, accepting a peerage in 1937, and ending as Leader of the Lords from 1945-1951. His life in politics was as long as the one before it--41 years--with all but 11 as a member of one House or the other. He served in three Cabinets, holding eight offices while in the lower House and four in the upper. Lacking debating skill or a charismatic personality, he owed his advancement to his industrious character and the regard with which he was held by two prime ministers, David Lloyd George and Clement Attlee. Though doubts were raised about his administrative ability, no one ever questioned his courage, diligence, perseverance or ability to adapt to whatever task he undertook. He pursued radical goals throughout his long life but always with regard to the realities of politics. His most important contribution, certainly in the field of public health, lay in the part he played in the creation of the panel system and the Ministry of Health.

100 Years of Council Housing: Six Responses to the 1919 Addison Act

The 1919 Housing and Town Planning Act was signed into law on 31 July 1919.

It was one of the most significant pieces of domestic legislation passed after the First World War and created a comprehensive, nationwide system of public housing provision for the first time, paid for largely by central government and delivered by local authorities and Public Utility Societies (Housing Associations in today’s terminology).

These principles dominated the country’s housing sector for most of the 20th century (although the generous subsidies of the 1919 Act itself only lasted until 1921), until the 1979 election created a different set of priorities.

The housing created under the Act – generally low-density estates of large, cottage-style dwellings arranged in either semi-detached forms or short rows – became the default architectural format for a large percentage of all council housing.

The design guidance that shaped this kind of architecture was contained in the Tudor Walters Report of 1918, which preceded and informed the Housing Act. The report was the culmination of decades of debate about the provision of working class housing prior to the First World War.

The suggested Tudor Walters designs, as translated into the Manual on the Preparation of State-aided Housing Schemes in 1919, were heavily influenced by key figures in domestic architecture and town planning.

Raymond Unwin (an important figure on the Tudor Walters Committee) and Barry Parker had designed famous private schemes before the war such as New Earswick village in York (for Rowntree’s chocolate factory workers) and Letchworth Garden City, one of the key inspirations for a housing reform movement both inside and outside of government that promoted a future of healthy, spacious homes set in verdant landscapes far from the decaying core of England’s large and dirty 19th century towns and cities.

Internal facilities were considered just as much as external appearances, and the space standards (large three bedroom houses were the most common type recommended and built) and amenities such as indoor toilets, baths and hot water plumbing were key aspects of the drive to permanently raise the standard of working class housing.

Previous legislation hadn’t fully grappled with the enormous problems created by private sector provision of working class housing for rent as the urban population soared and the poor quality housing that so many relied on became increasingly insanitary.

Too much work was left to philanthropic bodies, whilst local councils struggled to clear insanitary areas or build new housing with the limited funds and legal powers at their disposal. The Tudor Walters Committee suggested that pre-war shortages combined with a complete lack of building during 1914-18 meant that a minimum of half a million new dwellings were required.

The 1919 Housing Act was the first time that direct funding by central government was agreed to be the only workable solution to fulfil this need.

For local authorities to agree to build, they had to be convinced that the financial risk to them was minimal. After a good deal of disagreement about this during wartime, President of the Local Government Board Auckland Geddes MP persuaded the Cabinet in December 1918 that every dwelling built under the proposed new scheme should be subsidised directly by the Treasury above the level of a penny rate, so that the costs borne by local government finances could be as low as possible.

When Christopher Addison MP took over as President of the Local Government Board in January 1919, he put in place some key provisions to sit alongside this very generous system of subsidies – under Addison’s new Act, local authorities would only have three months to put forward new housing schemes in their area, and if any scheme was deemed to be inadequate or unsuitable in some way, then the Local Government Board could compel them to submit again.

All of this meant that, for the first time, many local authorities completely unused to building housing were suddenly to do so under the carrot of subsidies and the stick of central government compulsion.

The Architectural Review suggested in 1919 that because of this novel situation ‘the whole nation has had its interest in housing quickened as never before, so that there is scarcely a parish in the whole of Great Britain that has not a committee of men and women considering the question of housing with keenness and intelligence.’

In practice, this meant that local councils were dependent on their existing Borough Engineers to draw up estate plans and housing designs using the approaches suggested by the 1919 Manual, whilst others employed private architects, mostly local, to work on this brand new area of public building.

The results were remarkable. Across the country, relatively high budgets combined with architectural responses that mixed the national ‘Tudor Walters’ guidance with some local ideas, created many high quality housing schemes.

Buddicom Park Estate, Chester, Cheshire

Though this was Chester’s first substantial public housing scheme, plans for it pre-dated the new Housing Act. The notable town planner Patrick Abercrombie (who went on to rebuild the centre of Plymouth after the Second World War) had devised a 12 acre site plan for the Council prior to 1914, and before he became Professor of Civic Design at the University of Liverpool, so work under the new Housing Act was able to begin right away to a revised plan in 1919.

Abercrombie used a generally formal layout and also favoured more formal housing designs than the Manual. Together with the local Housing Committee he selected architect James Strong to design houses on the estate in an ‘urban cottage style’.

Strong used decorative diapered brickwork to echo the vernacular features on 19th century estate buildings on the Duke of Westminster’s nearby Grosvenor Estate, and introduced a style that was distinctive and which responded to local traditions.

Sunray Estate, North Dulwich, London

Designed by HM Office of Works under Sir Frank Baines the Sunray Estate was built by the Labour and Trades Council who provided direct labour for Camberwell Metropolitan Borough.

The land owners, Dulwich College estate, had previously attempted to develop the site as philanthropic housing with a scheme designed by Edwin Hall, but due to lack of resources leased it to the council who built the scheme under the 1919 Act, retaining Hall’s road layout. In addition to 240 houses, six blocks of ‘cottage’ flats (one dwelling per floor, with an external appearance of normal houses) and three-storey block flats were built.

Frank Baines and the Office of Works had built munitions workers’ housing during the First World War in a very high quality Arts & Crafts style, notably at the Well Hall Estate for the workers of Woolwich Arsenal.

Baines believed very much in the benefits of mixing low-rise flats with houses to provide for different needs and create a social mix, arguing with Raymond Unwin on this point and resigning from the Tudor Walters Committee when this was not accepted as official design guidance.

Haig Avenue/Beatty Road Estate, Southport, Merseyside

Southport Borough Council began building under the Act in 1920 with lay-outs and designs by A E Jackson (Borough Engineer) and H E Ford (Engineering Assistant). Design guidance from government included strong encouragement to experiment with new materials and forms of construction, and the council employed contractors the Unit Construction Company to build in high quality concrete blockwork.

The method saved on brick (still in short supply following the war) but also enabled unskilled labour to be used as the methods of construction were simpler than brickwork, further reducing costs. Three basic types of concrete block houses (parlour, non-parlour and cottage flats in single, detached and short rows) were provided with variety introduced in the grouping, detailing, finish and roofing material (slate and tile). Although many examples on the estate have been painted, some have not and their survival as visible concrete dwellings from such an early period is rare nationally.

Mile Cross Estate, Norwich, Norfolk

Mile Cross was built as a ‘showcase’ estate, and the City of Norwich employed well-known town planner Stanley Adshead, a former Professor of Civic Design at the University of Liverpool and the first Professor of Town Planning at University College, London, to create the master plan.

Adshead appointed four local Norfolk architects to design the housing: Stanley Wearing A F Scott George Skipper and S J Livock. Adshead also partly provided the design of 184 experimental steel-framed Dorlonco houses (by Adshead, Abercrombie and Ramsey), simple Neo-Georgian cottages finished in brick and render over the hidden steel structure, and built around Civic Gardens, Bolingbroke Road, Chambers Road and Marshall Street.

The formal layout was focused on the wide axis of Suckling Avenue (with ‘architect designed’ houses at key points along the boulevard), culminating in a mushroom-shaped close, Civic Gardens. These wide tree lined roads contrasted with notably narrow side roads with simple footpaths running between front gardens that seemed to take the rural lanes of East Anglia as their inspiration.

Hillfields Estate, Bristol

Hillfields claims to be the earliest of the municipal cottage estates initiated under the 1919 Act as part of the ‘National Housing Scheme’ – various other estates make this claim but Hillfields is the only one to be commemorated as such with a memorial plaque (in Beechen Drive).

Not all houses were for council tenants: those on Maple Avenue were built in 1922 for the benefit of employees at E S & A Robinson’s nearby paper mill, who were able to purchase them. The earliest section of the estate was treated as a demonstration area, with a variety of house types constructed following an architectural competition, in collaboration with central government. Representatives from other authorities were invited to come and view the properties to discuss the merits of each house type (for example build cost and layout), and the Europe-wide Inter-Allied Housing and Town Planning Congress visited the estate in June 1920.

Walker Estate, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, Tyne and Wear

In 1919 a competition was held for a new housing area of 122 acres at Walker, Newcastle, won by F L Thompson, R Dann and S P Taylor of London. Their proposal was for an informal layout with allotments, recreational facilities, library, clubhouse and shopping centre (at Welbeck Road/Ronan Avenue).

The houses and cottage flats were semi-detached or in blocks of four, built of brick or rendered concrete. Known as ‘Walker Garden Suburb’ when first built, the estate was seen as a model of its kind. Today, the estate has very good survival of front gardens, concrete fencing and privet hedges that all help to maintain its appealing cottage estate character.

As in many of the 1919 estates, the range of housing types (those with and without a parlour, and cottage flats) and intelligent arrangement of housing groups help to reduce any sense of monotony. A small green with a war memorial facing Walker Park is the most formal element of a low density design with a garden suburb character.

Written by Matthew Whitfield, Architectural Investigator at Historic England

ADDISON Genealogy

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Person:Christopher Addison (8)

January 24, 1835 - James McIntire of Franklin County to Christopher Addison of Franklin County for $100 ? acres on waters of Little Leatherwood Creek adjoining Crump. Wit: Obediah Neal, William E. Smith J. P. Rec: October 3, 1837 February 29, 1835 - James McIntire of Franklin County to Christopher Addison of Franklin County for $100 58 acres bordering Addison's own land.Wit: ? Rec: May 12, 1835 August 20, 1853 - Christopher Addison of Franklin County to Thomas Mize of Franklin County for $180 337 acres dividing waters of the Middle and North Rivers where H. P. Mize now lives and Mize Store stands. Wit: E. W. Morris, Issac B. Laurense J. P.Rec: January 7, 1854 January 10, 1857 - Christopher Addison of Franklin County to Thomas Mize of Franklin County for $500 160 acres on fork of Hunter's Creek, bordering Payne, Oliver, Curtis Guest, Mize, F. C. Payne. Wit: John L. Mize, Morgan Guest J. P. Rec: April 24, 1857

ADDISON Bible Record (from Mrs. Era Stinson)

Christopher ADDISON was born February the 21st 1799.
Susannah ADDISON was Born August the 29th 1802.
Mary ann ADDISON was born October the 15th 1821.
B. G. ADDISON was born April the 26th 1824.
Jincy L. ADDISON was born June the 12th 1826.
Syntha ADDISON was born March 13th 1829.
Clark T. ADDISON was born October 8th 1831.
Marion ADDISON was born July the 13th 1834.
Elisabethe ADDISON was born July the 9th 1842?
Tompson B. ADDISON was born March the 20th 1843.
C. ADDISON Deceased Nov 25 1861.
B. G. ADDISON Deceased May 22 1851.
Susanah ADISON Deceased May 27 1876.

Frühe Jahre

Christopher Addison wurde am 19. Juni 1869 in Hogsthorpe in Lincolnshire geboren. Mit 13 Jahren besuchte er das Trinity College in Harrogate, an der Sheffield Medical School und dem St Bartholomew’s Hospital in London studierte er später Medizin und wurde Anatomieprofessor an den Universitäten in Cambridge und London. Für seine Eltern, seine Familie war bereits seit mehreren Generationen Eigentümer einer Farm, war seine Ausbildung äu෾rst kostspielig. Deshalb unterstützte Addison nach seinem Abschluss seine Eltern auch finanziell. Er erhielt zun์hst eine Professur an der University of Sheffield und wechselte später an das Charing Cross Hospital in London. Er war lange Zeit Präsident der Anatomischen Gesellschaft von Gro෻ritannien und Irland. Au෾rdem war er von 1898 bis 1901 Herausgeber der Fachzeitschrift „Quarterly Medical Journal“. Im Jahre 1902 heiratete er Isobel Gray. Sie hatten zusammen zwei Tཬhter und drei Söhne. Isobel, Tochter eines reichen schottischen Gesch๏tsmannes, unterstützte ihren Ehemann sowohl moralisch, als auch finanziell, nachdem er sich für seine politische Karriere entschieden hatte.

File:Christopher Addison, 1st Viscount Addison.jpg

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Lord Addison married firstly Isobel, daughter of Archibald Gray, in 1902. They had two daughters and three sons. [3] Isobel, the daughter of a wealthy Scottish businessman and shipping agent, supported her husband morally and financially when he embarked upon a career in politics. After her death in 1934 Addison married secondly Dorothy, daughter of Frederick Percy Low, in 1937. Lord Addison died in December 1951, aged 82, only two months after the end of his political career. He was succeeded in his titles by his eldest son, Christopher. Lady Addison died in September 1982. [3]

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