Country Index: Scotland

Country Index: Scotland

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Wars and Treaties

Berwick, Peace of (18 June 1639)
Bishop's War, First (1639)
Bishop's War, Second (1640)
English Civil War, first (1642-6)
English Civil War, Second (1648)
Jacobite Revolt, First (the '15)
Jacobite Revolt, Second (the 45)
Ripon, Treat of (26 October 1640)


Alford, battle of, 2 July 1645 (Scotland)
Alnwick, battle of, 1093
Alnwick, battle of, 1174
Bannockburn, battle of, 1314
Benburb, battle of, 5 June 1646 (Ireland)
Culloden, battle of, 16 April 1746 (Scotland)
Dunbar, battle of, 1296
Dundalk, 1318 (Ireland)
Dupplin Muir, battle of, 1332
Falkirk, battle of, 1298
Flodden, battle of, 1513
Halidon Hill, battle of, 1333
Homildon Hill, battle of, 1402
Marston Moor, battle of, 2 July 1644
Mons Graupius, battle of, 83
Myton, 1319
Nechtansmere, 20 May 685
Neville's Cross, battle of, 17 October 1346
Philiphaugh, battle of, 13 September 1645 (Scotland)
Ruthven, battle of, 20 June 1306
Sheriff Muir, battle of, 13 November 1715 (Scotland)
Standard, battle of the, 22 August 1138
Stirling Bridge, battle of, 11 September 1297
Tippermuir, battle of, 1 September 1644
Otterburn, battle of, 5 August 1388
Verneuil, battle of, 17 August 1424


Albany, John Stuart, 2nd Duke of, 1481/4-1536
Alencon, Charles IV, Duke of 1489-1525
Argylle, John Campbell, second duke of Argylle (1678-1743)
Baillie, William, Scottish general
Buchan, John Stewart third earl of, 1380-1424
Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender (1720-1788)
Charles I, 1600-1649, king of Great Britain and Ireland (1625-1649)
Cromwell, Oliver, 1599-1658, Lord Protector
Cumberland, William Augustus, duke of (1721-1765)
Douglas, Archibald, earl of Wigtown, fifth earl of Douglas, c.1391-1439
George II (1683-1760), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1727-1760)
James Edward Stuart, the old Pretender (1688-1766)
Mar, John Erskine, earl of Mar (1675-1732)
Montrose, James Graham, 1st Marquess of (1612-1650)
Morgan, Thomas, Sir (d.1679
Ormonde, James Butler, second duke of, 1665-1745
Ranken, Harry Sherwood, VC MB ChB MRCP 1883-1914
Stewart, John, third earl of Buchan, 1380-1424
Stewart, Sir John, Lord of Darnley, c.1380-1429
Stuart, John, 2nd Duke of Albany, 1481/4-1536
Wigtown, Archibald Douglas, earl of, fifth earl of Douglas, c.1391-1439

Weapons, Armies & Units


SCOTLAND: The Land of the Gaels

The name of Scotland comes from the Latin name for the Gaels – a linguistic group, native to Scotland and other areas of the United Kingdom (UK). Alba, the Scot name for Scotland, comes from the Celtic name, Albion.

The Gaelic language, the country’s stunning terrain, and its 1,200 medieval historic homes and castles all draw travelers to Scotland. In addition, the country’s Scottish clans, tartan designs, Scotch whiskey, and world-recognized golf courses give travelers yet another reason to escape to the Land of the Gaels.

The country plays host to 587 golf courses and is home to approximately 130 whiskey distilleries. Scotland also evokes a sense of magic with its folklore – stories, passed down through time, that tell of mystical creatures, including beasts and serpents.

When you choose to travel in Scotland, you will not be taking a holiday just to pass the time. Scotland provides plenty of entertainment, whether you wish to visit a castle, improve your golf swing, learn more about the country’s history or language, or enjoy a lively evening in one of the country’s pubs.

Located 75 minutes from London and 110 minutes from Paris, Scotland comprises 800 islands besides the main island in the UK. Situated in mid-west Europe, the country occupies the northern third of Great Britain and shares a border with England to the south. From its wild coastlines to its rolling green valleys and towering mountains, Scotland’s terrain is part of its overall appeal.

While you can be assured that the mainland features a jam-packed list of attractions and activities, its 800 small isles, north of the county, provide great getaways too. The Shetland Isles and Orkney Isles possess a magical mix of Celtic, Norse, and Scottish culture and history.

To the west of the mainland, archipelagos, such as the Outer Hebrides, offer a chance to enjoy the sun and surf in the summer while the Inner Hebrides feature scenic excursions, such as the Isle of Skye. It does not matter what area you visit. Scotland always sits close to a body of water.

For example, the North Sea in the East separates Scotland from the rest of Europe while the Atlantic Ocean in the north and west serves as a divider between Scotland and Iceland, the U.S., and Canada. The Irish Sea, to the Southwest, separates the country from Northern Ireland.

Each region of Scotland has a distinctive character and charm. Therefore, regardless of where your travel, Scotland is full of fun experiences, historic discoveries, and surprises.


The mainland of Scotland makes up ⅓ of the size of the Great Britain, and is to the northwest of mainland Europe.

The size of the land of Scotland is 78,772km² (30,414 sq mi). [23] Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for 96 kilometres (60 mi) across. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland is only 30 kilometres (20 mi) from the southern part of Kintyre, [24] Norway is 305 kilometres (190 mi) to the east and the Faroe Islands are 270 kilometres (168 mi) to the north. Scotland's land also includes several islands, including the Inner and Outer Hebrides off the west coast and the archipelagoes of Orkney and Shetland to the north of the mainland.

Compared to the other areas of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, Scotland is sparsely populated, most especially the north-western half of it. The main geographical feature that dictates this is the Highland Boundary Fault which roughly splits the country in half from the southwest to the northeast.

To the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault are the more mountainous Scottish Highlands and islands, and this half of the country contains less than 5% of the total population. To the south and east of the Highland Boundary Fault is the Scottish Lowlands, which contain the vast majority (about 75%) of the Scottish population, and 3 of the 4 biggest cities (Glasgow which is 1st, Edinburgh which is 2nd, and Dundee which is 4th). Below the lowlands are the Southern Uplands which are hilly, but not as hilly at the Highlands. They are less densely populated than the lowlands, but still a lot more dense than the highlands and islands.

Located within the central part of the lowlands is the "Central Belt", a rectangle of land roughly 88 kilometres (55 miles) from West to East and 48 kilometres (30 miles) North to South. About half of the population of Scotland lives within these roughly 4,530 square kilometres (or 1,750 square miles), which is a little more than 2% of the total land area of Scotland. This is the area between Scotland’s two largest cities - Glasgow, at the Central Belt’s Western end, and Edinburgh, at the Central Belt’s Eastern end. This area is geographically bound by two bays of water – the Firth of Clyde to the West and the Firth of Forth to the East. It is the most fertile Earth in Scotland, which is why it is so population-dense, compared to the rest of the country.

The tallest mountain in Scotland is Ben Nevis, which is also the tallest mountain in the British Isles. [25]

The history of Scotland begins when humans first began to live in Scotland after the end of the last ice age. [26] [27] Of the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age civilization that existed in the country, many fossils remain, but no written records were left behind. These people did not have writing.

Because of where Scotland is in the world and its strong reliance on trade routes by sea, the nation held close links in the south and east with the Baltic countries, and through Ireland with France and Europe. The sea was very important for trade reasons. Following the Acts of Union and Industrial Revolution, Scotland grew to be one of the largest commercial, intellectual and industrial states in Europe.

Caledonians, Picts, and Romans Edit

The written history of Scotland begins when the Roman Empire came to the British Isles. The Romans gave Great Britain its name in Latin: Britannia or Britannia Maior, 'Great Britain'. The Romans overcame and controlled what is now England, Wales, and southern Scotland. To the north of the River Forth was Caledonia, land not fully owned by the Romans. The Romans, built cities like Edinburgh when they built the Antonine wall. The Romans had military camps and forts in much of Scotland. In Classical Antiquity, the Romans named the people in Caledonia in Caledonii, 'Caledonians'. During Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, the people of Caledonia were the Picts. The Roman army left Great Britain in the 5th century, and by the time Roman military had fought many wars with the Picts. They Romans also fought the Scoti and the Saxons. Both the Scoti and the Saxons came to the land.

Scoti, Picts, and Saxons Edit

In the Early Middle Ages, the Picts lived in a part of the land with the name Pictland. The Scoti came from Ireland and started the kingdom of Dál Riata. Parts of south-western Scotland and northern Ireland were part of Dál Riata. People there spoke old Goidelic languages. The Saxons came from Continental Europe. In the British Isles they have the name Anglo-Saxons. South-eastern Scotland became part of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria. Their language was Old English.

In Pictland, the Picts started the Kingdom of Alba in the 9th-century. The kingdom began in the land between the River Spey and the River Forth. The Pictish language went extinct, and people in the 10th-century kingdom of Alba spoke the Goidelic language, Scots Gaelic. In time, the kingdom grew. The lands of Moray and Angus became part of the kingdom. The northern parts of Northumbria, south of the River Forth, became part of the kingdom.

People began to build large towns in the 10th century.

Norse Edit

Most of the Scottish islands were ruled by the Norse (and then by Norwegians and Danes) for over four hundred years. The Kingdom of the Isles was a Norse kingdom in the western, coastal parts of Scotland. They spoke the Old Norse language.

The Norse lands include the Hebrides to the west and Orkney and Shetland to the north. The Isle of Man was also a part of the Kingdom of the Isles. The islands still have a culture of their own.

Wars of Independence Edit

The Wars of Scottish Independence were many military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

The First War (1296–1328) began with the Edward I of England's invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in 1328. The Second War (1332–1357) began with the English-supported invasion of Scotland by Edward Balliol and the 'Disinherited' in 1332, and ended around 1357 with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick.

The wars were part of a great national crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most important moments in the nation's history. At the end of both wars, Scotland was an independent kingdom. The wars were also important for other reasons, such as the invention of the longbow as an important weapon in medieval warfare.

A series of deaths in the line of succession in the 1280s, followed by King Alexander III's death in 1286 left the Scottish crown in crisis. His granddaughter, Margaret, the "Maid of Norway", a four-year-old girl, was the heir.

Edward I of England, as Margaret's great-uncle, suggested that his son (also a child) and Margaret should marry, stabilising the Scottish line of succession. In 1290 Margaret's guardians agreed to this, but Margaret herself died in Orkney on her voyage from Norway to Scotland before she was made Queen, or her wedding could take place.

Because there was no clear heir to the throne anymore, the Scottish people decided to ask Edward I of England to choose their king. The strongest candidate was called Robert Bruce. Robert Bruce had castles all around the country, and had a private army. But Edward wanted to invade Scotland, so he chose the weaker candidate, who was John Balliol. He had the strongest claim to the throne, and became king on 30 November 1292. Robert Bruce decided to accept this decision (his grandson and namesake later took the throne as Robert I).

Over the next few years, Edward I kept trying to undermine both the authority of King John and the independence of Scotland. In 1295, John, on the recommendation of his chief councillors, entered into an alliance with France. This was the beginning of the Auld Alliance.

In 1296, Edward invaded Scotland. He removed King John from power, and put him in jail. The following year William Wallace and Andrew de Moray raised an army from the southern and northern parts of the country to fight the English. Under their joint leadership, an English army was defeated at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. For a short time Wallace ruled Scotland in the name of John Balliol as Guardian of the realm.

Edward came north in person and defeated Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk in 1298. Wallace escaped but resigned as Guardian of Scotland. John Comyn and Robert the Bruce were put in his place. In 1305 Wallace was captured by the English, who executed him for treason. Wallace claimed he did not commit treason as he was not loyal to England.

In February 1306 Robert Bruce murdered John Comyn, a leading rival, in a church. Bruce went on to take the crown, but Edward's army overran the country yet again after defeating Bruce's small army at the Battle of Methven. Despite the excommunication of Bruce and his followers by Pope Clement V, his support slowly strengthened and by 1314, with the help of leading nobles such as Sir James Douglas and the Earl of Moray, only the castles at Bothwell and Stirling were still under English control.

Edward I died in Carlisle in 1307. His heir, Edward II, moved an army north to break the siege of Stirling Castle and again take control. Robert defeated that army at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, securing temporary independence. In 1320, a letter to the Pope from the nobles of Scotland (the Declaration of Arbroath) went part of the way towards convincing Pope John XXII to overturn the earlier excommunication and cancel the various acts of submission by Scottish kings to English ones so that Scotland's independence could be recognised by other European countries.

In 1326, the first full Parliament of Scotland met. The parliament was made from an earlier council of nobility and clergy around 1235, but in 1326 representatives of the burghs—the burgh commissioners—joined them to form the Three Estates.

In 1328, Edward III signed the Treaty of Northampton which declared Scottish independence under the rule of Robert the Bruce. Four years after Robert's death in 1329, England invaded Scotland yet again, looking to put the "Rightful King"—Edward Balliol, son of John Balliol—to the Scottish throne, starting the Second War of Independence. In the face of tough Scottish resistance, led by Sir Andrew Murray, attempts to secure Balliol on the throne failed. Edward III lost interest in Balliol after the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War with France. In 1341 David II, King Robert's son and heir, was able to return from temporary exile in France. Balliol finally resigned his empty claim to the throne to Edward in 1356, before retiring to Yorkshire, where he died in 1364.

Union of the Crowns Edit

In 1603, Elizabeth I, queen of England and of Ireland, died. The king of Scotland was the queen's heir apparent, and James VI of Scotland (son of Mary, Queen of Scots) became king of England and king of Ireland. James VI and I (from Scotland's House of Stuart) went to England to control the government, and none of Scotland's kings came to Scotland for more than one hundred years.

United Kingdom Edit

In 1707, Scotland and England were joined in the Act of Union to make one big Kingdom, the Kingdom of Great Britain. When Ireland joined in 1801, the United Kingdom was created. Scotland was an important part of the colonialism and imperialism of the British Empire. Scots colonists emigrated throughout the empire, and a large diaspora of Scots lives throughout the world as a result. The Scottish Enlightenment was an important part of the Age of Enlightenment. Philosophers like David Hume and Adam Smith led the Scottish Enlightenment.

Soldiers fought some of the wars caused by Jacobitism in Scotland. The Jacobites wanted the Roman Catholic House of Stuart, and not the Protestant House of Hanover to be kings of Britain and of Ireland. The last land battle in Great Britain was the Battle of Culloden in 1745. At that time the government's British Army stopped the Catholic rebellion led by Charles Edward Stuart. Scots-speakers and English-speakers moved many Gaelic speakers off lands in the Scottish Highlands, and many emigrated to the British Empire and the United States. In the 19th century, George IV visited Scotland. After that, Scotland and Scottish culture became more popular. Tourism to Scotland started in the 19th century.

In a referendum in 1997, a majority of voters in Scotland chose to have political devolution. The Scottish Parliament, Scottish Government, and the office of first minister of Scotland was set up in 1999.

One first minister of Scotland, Alex Salmond, led the Scottish National Party's Scottish Government from 2007. in 2014, the Scottish independence referendum ended in a majority (55%) voting against independence from the United Kingdom. Nicola Sturgeon became first minister on 19 November 2014.

The official languages of Scotland are English, Scots and Gaelic. English is spoken by most people in Scotland, while only a small number, mostly in the Western Isles, speaks Gaelic. [28] Gaelic began declining in the late Middle Ages when Scottish kings and nobles preferred English.

Football Edit

Football is the most popular sport in Scotland. Three of the big cities, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee, have two or three big football teams, and most cities have at least one team. The two most famous teams in Scotland are known as the "Old Firm". These are Celtic and Rangers. These two Glasgow clubs have a lot of history, and are fierce rivals, often causing fights, riots and even murders between the fans. Rangers are world record holders, having won the most amount of league titles of any football team, currently 54.

Scotland were the winners of the Homeless World Cup in 2007 and are the current champions after they won in August 2011. They defeated Mexico 4–3 in Paris, France. [29]

Other football clubs Edit

The other main clubs in Scotland are Aberdeen, Hearts, Hibs and Dundee United. These teams are in the Premier League right now, and usually take the most places in the top six of the league.

Some other Scottish clubs include Gretna, who won three titles in a row, moving from the Third Division, to the SPL in only three seasons. Gretna ran out of money, and they were shut down. Also, Raith Rovers, who famously played UEFA Cup Winners, Bayern München. Raith Rovers were knocked out by Bayern München, but managed to lead 1-0 at half time. Queen of the south also reached the Europa league, after reaching the 2008 Scottish cup final. they lost 3 -2 to Rangers.

Scottish Premier League Edit

The top division of Scottish Football is called the "Scottish Premier League" (or SPL), and is currently sponsored by the Clydesdale Bank, a large Scottish Bank. In 2013, its name was changed to "Scottish Premiership".

Rugby Edit

In 1925, 1984 and 1990, Scotland were winners of the Five Nations' Gran Slam, having beaten all four other teams - England, Wales, Ireland and France.

Golf Edit

Golf is a popular sport in Scotland. It is unique, as Scotland is the birthplace of golf, and there are many public golf courses where people can play for small fees. Everywhere else in the world, golf is a game for the rich.

Sandy Lyle was the first Scottish golfer to win a major title in modern times. Colin Montgomery is one of the best players never to have won a major championship after finishing second five times.

Motorsports Edit

Scotland is also involved with motorsports. Former F1 driver David Coulthard is a thirteen time Grand Prix winner. Jackie Stewart is a 3-time F1 World Champion and regarded as one of the best drivers ever. Jim Clark was a 2-time F1 World Champion and regarded as one of the best ever with Fangio, Schumacher and Senna. Paul di Resta, born in Livingston, is a current F1 driver for the Force India team. Colin McRae was also the 1995 World Rally Champion.

Elephant Polo Edit

Scotland were the world champions of the unusual sport of Elephant Polo in 2004. Elephant Polo, registered as an Olympic sport with the Nepal Olympic Committee, was invented by Scotsman Nathan Mochan in 1983. [30]

Tennis Edit

Andy Murray, originally from Scotland, is currently the United Kingdom's best tennis player, having won singles titles at the US Open, and Wimbledon, where his 2013 win ended a 77-year wait for a British man to win the competition. He also won Olympic Gold in the men's singles at the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. His brother, Jamie Murray, is a successful doubles player.

The history of Scottish Country Dance

The RSCDS has always stressed the importance of the social nature of the dance form but it is equally concerned with upholding the standards of correct dancing technique. It is this unique blend of wonderful music, disciplined dancing, intricate floor patterns and sociability that appeals to so many people throughout the world.

Scottish Country Dancing is the distinctively Scottish form of the country dance and it is derived mainly from the English style of the 17th Century: "longways for as many as will" dances which often used Scottish tunes.

Following the appearance of the country dance in Scotland in the early 18th Century, it underwent changes and adopted some of the characteristics of other dance forms such as Scotch Reels, Quadrilles and Waltzes, but perhaps the most notable change from the English style was the importance attached to precise footwork, an emphasis which had not been seen, in social dancing since the days of the Regency Quadrilles and which is still upheld by the RSCDS.

Scotland, of course, had other traditions of dance and here the country dances incorporated features from older Strathspeys, Reels, rants and Jigs. The result was a style of dance with which the whole of Scottish society could feel comfortable the elegance and courtesy of the ‘country dance’ and the energy and step precision of the old ‘reels’.

While country dances died out in England, they continued to flourish in Scotland. The dancing masters, who travelled extensively throughout Europe, were often skilled musicians and helped to widen the repertoire to include newer, fashionable dances such as quadrilles and polkas.

England and Scotland Form Union as &aposGreat Britain&apos

The Articles of Union presented by Commissioners to Queen Anne, creating the Kingdom of Great Britain.

The Print Collector/Getty Images

When Queen Elizabeth I died in 1603, the next person in line to the throne was her cousin, King James VI of Scotland. Now, he gained a second name: King James I of England.

Even though Scotland and England shared the same king, they were still two politically separate kingdoms, each with their own parliament. Over the next century, there were several failed attempts to merge them into one nation. These attempts ended in 1707, when England and Scotland united as “Great Britain” under Queen Anne (the queen portrayed in The Favourite).

There were several reasons for this union, says Christopher A. Whatley, a professor of Scottish history at the University of Dundee and author of The Scots and the Union: Then and Now. One was the fact that Scotland was in debt after trying to establish a colonial empire in the Americas the same way that England, Portugal and Spain had done.

“The Scots recognized that the Realpolitik, if you like, of the situation was that if they were to establish markets overseas, contacts overseas, they needed the support of a stronger maritime power, which was England,” he says.

Many Scots also saw the union as a way of preventing the Catholic Stuarts from reinstating an absolute monarchy, and securing Scotland’s future under a Protestant constitutional monarchy. For England, there was concern that if it didn’t unite with Scotland, the country might side against England with France in the War of the Spanish Succession. So in 1707, England agreed to give Scotland money to pay off its debts, and both countries’ parliaments passed the Acts of Union to become one nation.

Following centuries of Scotland’s policies lying in the hands of English politicians miles away in Westminster in London, a new Scottish Parliament was created and opened in 1999 at Holyrood in Edinburgh.

The Scottish Parliament is made up of 129 elected representatives who debate issues and make laws for Scotland. The head of the Scottish Government is the First Minister.

From 1850 – 1950 Scotland’s economy mainly centred around heavy industry like shipbuilding, coal mining, steel and iron ore mining and locomotive building. During World War I and World War II this brought prosperity to Scotland, but shortly afterwards the economy went into steep decline.

In the 1970s crude oil began to be pumped from the North Sea, creating a new industry in Scotland. The country now boasts a strong and varied economy, with industries such as financial and business, renewable energy and sustainable tourism.

Where is Scotland?

Scotland is a country located in the northern region of the United Kingdom. It is geographically positioned both in the Northern and Western hemispheres of the Earth. Scotland is bordered by England in the southeast the Atlantic Ocean and the Sea of the Hebrides in the north and west by the North Sea in the northeast and by the Irish Sea in the south.

Regional Maps: Map of Europe

3. Price change

3.1 Annual price change

Annual price change for Scotland over the past 5 years

In Scotland, average prices increased by 8.4% in the year to December 2020, compared with an increase of 8.1% in year to November 2020.

Annual price change by local authority for Scotland

Low numbers of sales transactions in some local authorities, such as Orkney Islands, Na h-Eileanan Siar and Shetland Islands, can lead to volatility in the series.

While we make efforts to account for this volatility, the change in price in these local levels can be influenced by the type and number of properties sold in any given period.

Geographies with low number of sales transactions should be analysed in the context of their longer-term trends rather than focusing on monthly movements.

Local authorities December 2020 December 2019 Difference
Aberdeenshire £183,687 £180,745 1.6%
Angus £152,759 £145,672 4.9%
Argyll and Bute £154,815 £152,158 1.7%
City of Aberdeen £142,631 £145,717 -2.1%
City of Dundee £132,662 £121,886 8.8%
City of Edinburgh £288,899 £274,421 5.3%
City of Glasgow £149,565 £136,054 9.9%
Clackmannanshire £140,189 £127,664 9.8%
Dumfries and Galloway £140,264 £130,872 7.2%
East Ayrshire £111,306 £94,417 17.9%
East Dunbartonshire £228,209 £210,774 8.3%
East Lothian £248,233 £235,097 5.6%
East Renfrewshire £251,163 £223,209 12.5%
Falkirk £140,046 £129,989 7.7%
Fife £144,936 £132,297 9.6%
Highland £176,301 £167,462 5.3%
Inverclyde £107,752 £98,515 9.4%
Midlothian £194,575 £185,310 5.0%
Moray £161,725 £149,102 8.5%
Na h-Eileanan Siar £116,601 £117,344 -0.6%
North Ayrshire £113,810 £101,894 11.7%
North Lanarkshire £115,933 £108,458 6.9%
Orkney Islands £165,421 £165,963 -0.3%
Perth and Kinross £206,592 £189,390 9.1%
Renfrewshire £137,094 £122,509 11.9%
Scottish Borders £174,140 £157,438 10.6%
Shetland Islands £167,486 £139,664 19.9%
South Ayrshire £151,849 £133,359 13.9%
South Lanarkshire £138,976 £128,902 7.8%
Stirling £212,979 £192,684 10.5%
West Dunbartonshire £117,474 £108,227 8.5%
West Lothian £175,742 £161,406 8.9%
Scotland £162,983 £150,287 8.4%

Average price by local authority for Scotland

In December 2020, the most expensive area to purchase a property was City of Edinburgh, where the average cost was £289,000. In contrast, the cheapest area to purchase a property was Inverclyde, where the average cost was £108,000.

3.2 Average price change by property type

Average price change by property type for Scotland

Property type December 2020 December 2019 Difference
Detached £285,415 £259,736 9.9%
Semi-detached £169,991 £157,001 8.3%
Terraced £136,679 £125,503 8.9%
Flat or maisonette £115,600 £107,756 7.3%
All £162,983 £150,287 8.4%

A Fight With The Romans

When the Scots first came to Albion, they found it already peopled by the Britons, and by another race called the Picts. It is not certain from where these Picts came, but they were a very wild and fierce people. It is supposed that they were called Picts, from the Latin word pictus, which means painted, because they painted their bodies instead of wearing clothes.

So there were three races living in Scotland, and these were divided into many tribes who often fought with each other. There were kings of Scots, kings of Picts, and kings of Britons, all ruling in Albion. Sometimes the kings and their peoples all fought against each other sometimes the Picts and the Scots joined together against the Britons. Those were fierce and wild times, and they were all fierce and wild peoples. They lived in caves, or in holes dug in the ground and covered over with turf and with branches of trees. They wore few clothes except those made from the skins of animals, although the Scots knew how to weave and make cloth in bright coloured checks and stripes.

A great part of the country was covered with forests. In these forests wild beasts prowled about. Bears, wolves, wild boars, bisons, and a kind of tiger, were the fiercest, but there were also several kinds of deer, beavers, and many other animals which are no longer to be found in Scotland.

The people hunted these animals and killed them for food, and also for their skins, of which they made clothes. In hunting they used bows and arrows. Bows and arrows were used too in war, as well as a long, blunt, heavy spear. And in hunting and fighting the men spent nearly all their time.

Years went on. Many kings, good and bad, lived, and ruled, and died, and at last a great and clever people called the Romans heard of the island of Britain, and came sailing over the sea to conquer it. They landed first in the south of the island and tried to conquer the people there, and it was not until the year 80 A . D ., more than a hundred years after the Romans first came to Britain, that a general called Agricola marched into Scotland against the Caledonians, as the Romans called all the tribes who lived in the north part of the island.

Agricola took some of his soldiers into Scotland by land. Others sailed there in great galleys, as the Roman ships were called. The Caledonians did not fear the Roman soldiers. They had already fought against them many times, for they had often marched into the south of the island to help the Britons against the Romans. 'They were willing,' says an old writer, 'to help towards the delivery of the land from the bondage of the Romans, whose nestling so near their noses they were loth to see or hear of.'

But if the Caledonians did not fear the soldiers, the great galleys of the Romans filled them with awe and dread. Never before had they seen so many nor such great ships. 'The very ocean is given over to our enemies,' they said. 'How shall we save ourselves from these mighty conquerors who thus surround us on every side?'

But although the Caledonians were filled with dread, they fought bravely. As Agricola marched northward by the coast, his galleys followed him on the sea. Sometimes the galleys would come close to the shore, and the sailors would land and join the soldiers in the camp. There they would tell stories to each other of the battles and dangers, of the storms and adventures, through which they had passed, each trying to make the others believe that their adventures had been the most exciting, their dangers the greatest.

The Caledonians fought fiercely, but Agricola's soldiers were far better trained, and gradually he drove the islanders before him into the mountains beyond the rivers Forth and Clyde. There he built a line of forts. He knew that he had neither conquered nor subdued the fierce Caledonians. So he built this line of forts in order to cut them off from the south, and shut them, as it were, into another island.

Having built this line of forts, Agricola marched still farther north. But the Caledonians fought so fiercely that some of the Roman leaders begged Agricola to turn back. Agricola would not go back, but as the winter was near, and the roads were so bad as to be almost impassable, he encamped and waited for the spring before fighting any more.

The Caledonians spent the winter in making preparations for battle. All the various tribes forgot their quarrels and joined together under a leader called Galgacus. Sending their wives and children to a safe place, the men, young and old, from far and near, flocked to Galgacus eager to fight for their country.

When spring came and the roads were once more passable, the Romans left their camp and marched northward, seeking the Caledonians. They met, it is thought, somewhere upon the slopes of the Grampian hills, but no one is sure of the exact spot.

The Caledonians were little more than savages, yet they were ready to fight to the last for their country. They were almost naked. They wore no armour and carried only small shields. For weapons they had bows and arrows, blunt iron swords and heavy spears. Those in the centre of the army were mounted upon rough little horses, and there too were gathered the war chariots with swords upon the wheels ready to dash among the enemy and cut them down.

Against these savage warriors came the splendid soldiers of the Roman Empire, clad in glittering coats of mail, armed with swords and spears of sharpened steel, every man among them trained to obey, to fight, and to die.

As the Caledonians stood ready for battle, Galgacus made a speech to them. 'Fight to day,' he said, 'for the liberty of Albion. We have never been slaves, and if we would not now become the slaves of these proud Romans there is nothing left to us but to fight and die. We are at the farthest limits of land and liberty. There is no land behind us to which we may flee. There is nothing but the waves and rocks and the Romans in their ships. These plunderers of the world having taken all the land, now claim the seas, so that even if we fly to the sea there is no safety from them. They kill and slay, and take what is not theirs, and call it Empire. They make a desert and call it Peace. Our children, our wives, and all who are dear to us, are torn from us, our lands and goods are destroyed. Let this day decide if such things we are to suffer for ever or revenge instantly. March then to battle. Think of your children and of the freedom which was your fathers', and win it again, or die.'

When Galgacus had finished speaking, the Caledonians answered with great shouts and songs, then with their chariots and horsemen they rushed upon the Romans. Fiercely the battle began, fiercely it raged. The Caledonians fought with splendid courage, but what could half naked savages do against the steel clad warriors of Rome? When night fell, ten thousand Caledonians lay dead upon the field. The Romans had won the victory.

All through the night could be heard the desolate cries of sorrow and despair, as women moved over the battle field seeking their dead, and helping the wounded. All through the night the sky was red with the light of fires. But in the morning the country far and near was empty and silent, and the villages were smoking ruins. Not a Caledonian was to be seen. They had burned their homes and fled away to hide among the mountains.

Agricola, knowing that it would be useless to try to follow them through the dark forest and hills, turned and marched southward again beyond his line of forts. A few months later he was called back to Rome.

Agricola had been four years in Scotland, and when he left it the people were still unconquered.

About Scotland

Just what makes Scotland so special and worthy of a place on your must-visit holiday list? For starters, Scotland was voted 'the most beautiful country in the world' by readers of

This section has all the answers you need. Find out:

  • Who Nessie is, and where you can (maybe) find her
  • What you can expect from our unique music, language, dance and culture
  • Who our most famous Scots are - from Rabbie Burns to Macbeth
  • What makes our history special - our castles, stone circles and more
  • And great practical tips for planning a visit, LGBT-friendly events and how to get married in Scotland.

Take a look through this section, and you'll soon be an expert on everything from ceilidhs and William Wallace to standing stones and even our weather.


See all our history, which gave us castles, stone circles and more.

Sustainable & Responsible Tourism in Scotland

Discover more about responsible tourism in Scotland, as well as how you can experience all the country has to offer.

Famous Scots

From Rabbie Burns to Macbeth, there are famous Scots in history and even Hollywood.

Themed years

Our themed years celebrate the very best of Scotland and its people.

Scottish weddings

All our best ideas on Scottish proposals, weddings and honeymoons.

Uniquely Scottish

A round-up of everything that makes Scotland unique from the kilt to ceilidhs.

Practical information

Our top advice on everything you need for your trip to Scotland.

LGBT+ holidays and breaks

Great tips on LGBT+ friendly events and entertainment in Scotland.


The language of Scotland, Gaelic, is enjoying a revival in signs, names and conversation.