Colony Earth: Science in The Vedas - Part 1

Colony Earth: Science in The Vedas - Part 1


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

In my view, 6000 years ago the peoples of India either were far more advanced than NASA and then somehow mysteriously forgot — or the Mahabharata is the history of and evidence for an off-world civilization that did colonize this planet.

“History is the one weak point of Sanskrit literature, being practically non-existent. Not a single systematic chronological record has survived. And so complete is the lack of any data to guide us in this matter that the dates of even the most famous of Indian authors like Panini [the grammarian] and Kaidasa [Sanskrit poet & dramatist] are still subject to controversy.”

Quoted from the introduction by Lakshman Sarup to ‘The Nighantu and The Nirukta of Sri Yaskcarya, The Oldest Indian Treatise on Etymology, Philology and Semantics.’

The above quotation is taken from a highly esteemed important book said to be the cornerstone of any valid translations of Vedic Sanskrit. The Nighantus are the glossaries or lists of rare and obscure words occurring in the Vedic hymns. In his book on ‘Vedic Physics’ K.D. Verma states, “Without recourse to Nirukta of Yaska no claim to the study of Veda is sustainable.”

Thus from respected Indian scholars we learn that the Sanskrit literature itself does not provide “a single chronological record” and therefore the dates are subject to controversy. Even the end of the Kali Yuga is disputed, although India does accept 3102 BCE as the beginning of our current Cycle of Time. However, the dates of the Mahabharata War vary from 6000 BCE to 500 BCE.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy in his book ‘Vedic Physics, Scientific Origin of Hinduism’ connects the Mahabharata War with the Indus Valley Civilization. He notes and compares the coding of knowledge found in the (as yet untranslated) Indus Valley seals, to the coded 'hidden' knowledge in the Rig Veda.

Roy's view is that, “On the eve of the ‘Mahabharata War’ our ancestors believed that their knowledge was in danger of being lost. …writings could be destroyed. Therefore they decided that they would organize the Vedic knowledge and instruct pupils to memorize it, who will pass it on orally.” Krishna Dvaipayana who is described by Roy as “the chief Vedic scientist” accomplished this organization of Vedic knowledge in the Rig Veda, the Samaveda, the Yajurveda, and the Artharveda. The Sanskrit word VEDA means knowledge wisdom.

According to Roy after the Mahabharata War “the knowledge contained in the Vedas was gradually lost. As the knowledge contained in the Vedas started to make no sense at all, it became difficult to preserve the knowledge.” Thus the Sanskrit commentaries were composed in order to preserve the meaning of the Vedas. The Satapatha Brahmana is the most comprehensive of these commentaries, but as Roy opines: “Several centuries must have passed between the Mahabharata War and the writing of the Satapatha Brahmana, because the Satapatha Brahmana shows a significant loss of Vedic science.” Also there are several new ideas not found in the Vedas and “hardly any legend of creation.”

There are numerous descriptions of radiation weapons and aerial ships in the epic Mahabharata. From the perspective of seeing Earth as one of many planetary colonies, and because there are no verifiable dates to ascertain the time of the Mahabharata War, one might conclude that great and terrible war brought about the end of the Indus Valley civilization.

Other researchers have suggested that in ancient times a massive war occurred that used terrible nuclear weapons, which released and spread radiation over and around the earth. The radiation generated by such a catastrophic conflict involving all the armies of the ancient world may have spread far beyond the targeted areas, just as the plumes from the Fukushima disaster have and continue to spread over the Pacific Ocean and the entire planet. Such intense exposure could have easily altered most, if not all of mankind and diminished our perceptive capacities and intelligence levels considerably.

I suggest that the war was indeed waged between opposing sides of one family, but a family whose origin was beyond our heliosphere. This Great War is described in detail in the Mahabharata and ushers planet Earth into the Kali Yuga. The consequence of the devastating clouds of radiation left human intelligence vastly diminished. Most humans were then relegated to and trapped in five-sense perception, as we lost our previous abilities to access the myriad worlds and dimensional realms now invisible to most. Recent research by Professor Gerald Crabtree, who heads a genetics laboratory at Stanford University in California, suggests that human intelligence peaked as early as 4,000 BCE.

Indian authors have published a number of books that compare Vedic thought with modern science and quantum physics theories. Only a highly and technologically advanced civilization could have evolved the subtle ideas expressed in the Vedas. In ‘Vedic String Theory’ author M. Anant Bhakta says that in his work “a pioneer attempt is made to present the String Theory of Everything (T.O.E.) discovered by the Vedic sages, perhaps four to five millennia ago, and on which the unique Vedanta philosophy rests. …at the primordial level and from a void-like infinite ocean of consciousness (the Brahman, the Unborn), emerges the generator of ‘strings or sutras of consciousness’ — called the Hiranyagarbha (Golden Egg, the Firstborn), which is the precursor of the universes.”

Thus we see that ideas found in today’s string theory are connected Vedic thought. More quotations from M.Anant Bhakta’s Vedic String Theory:

“Mind-space (Chidakasha) … mind space is a mirrior-image of the macrocosm. … Imagery of Foam and Bubbles … often used in the Vedic literature while describing the clusters of universes that are being created and dissolved in the cosmos. … Quantum electrodynamics holds the view that all-pervading vacuum continuously spawns particles and waves that spontaneously pop into and out of existence on an unimaginably short time scale. This flux of particles is frequently referred to as ‘quantum foam’ which is believed to extend throughout the universe.”

“According to Gribben and Rees, ‘Theorists are now being led to consider the possibility that our universe is, indeed, just one bubble among many in some greater meta-universe.’ Michio Kaku writes... These universes might be compared to a vast collection of soap bubbles suspended in air.”

The genius sage and saint of Kashmir, Abhinavagupta (950-1020 AD) expressed a similar idea in his Paramarthasara, or Essence of the Exact Reality: “Maya tattva serves as the inanimate objective substance out of which all other sentient elements evolve. It is thus the substantive cause of numerous universes floating like bubbles in an ocean.”

M. Anant Bhakti: “Hiranyagarbha is variously translated as the Golden Egg, Golden Embryo … also called ‘Sutratma,’ the string-shaped consciousness (Atman) … Sutras mean ‘strings’ … accurate to regard sutras as strings with encoded program. According to Sanskrit scholars, sutra literally means ‘that which generates something.’ … Hiranyagarbha or the string field … that, along with consciousness, pervades the universe is also called VYOMA (ether).”

M. Anant Bhakti emphasizes the importance of consciousness in reaching any real understanding of the universe and quotes Eugene Wigner, the Hungarian-American theoretical physicist and mathematician who explored quantum mechanics: “Science itself is beginning to realize that it cannot evolve a T.O.E. without elevating consciousness to the primordial (transcendental) level which is beyond the reach of scientific methods. Eugene Wigner clearly states that it is not possible to formulate the laws of quantum mechanics in a fully consistent way without reference to consciousness.”

By V. Susan Ferguson


Space colonization

Space colonization (also called space settlement or extraterrestrial colonization) is the hypothetical permanent habitation and exploitation of natural resources from outside planet Earth. As such it is a form of human presence in space, beyond human spaceflight or operating space outposts.

Many arguments have been made for and against space colonization. [1] The two most common in favor of colonization are survival of human civilization and the biosphere in the event of a planetary-scale disaster (natural or human-made), and the availability of additional resources in space that could enable expansion of human society. The most common objections to colonization include concerns that the commodification of the cosmos may be likely to enhance the interests of the already powerful, including major economic and military institutions, and to exacerbate pre-existing detrimental processes such as wars, economic inequality, and environmental degradation. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

No space colonies have been built so far. Currently, the building of a space colony would present a set of huge technological and economic challenges. Space settlements would have to provide for nearly all (or all) the material needs of hundreds or thousands of humans, in an environment out in space that is very hostile to human life. They would involve technologies, such as controlled ecological life-support systems, that have yet to be developed in any meaningful way. They would also have to deal with the as-yet unknown issue of how humans would behave and thrive in such places long-term. Because of the present cost of sending anything from the surface of the Earth into orbit (around $1400 per kg, or $640 per-pound, to low Earth orbit by Falcon Heavy), a space colony would currently be a massively expensive project.

There are yet no plans for building space colonies by any large-scale organization, either government or private. However, many proposals, speculations, and designs for space settlements have been made through the years, and a considerable number of space colonization advocates and groups are active. Several famous scientists, such as Freeman Dyson, have come out in favor of space settlement. [7]

On the technological front, there is ongoing progress in making access to space cheaper (reusable launch systems could reach $20 per kg to orbit), [8] and in creating automated manufacturing and construction techniques.


Colony Earth, Advanced Science and The Rig Veda

V. Susan Ferguson, Contributor
Waking Times

Note: This is the first part of a II part series by V. Susan Ferguson. Please review part II, here.

Earth is only one of hundreds of colonies in our galaxy, which is home to 100 billion alien planets. Now is the time for this self-evident truth to be accepted! Planet Earth is a Sacred Cosmic Life Laboratory for the creation of a wondrous variety of beings. What is created here may be shared with other planets, and the living beings that inhabit or will inhabit those planets throughout the universe. Repeating cycles of Ice Ages and warm periods on Earth are fertile ground for the evolutionary seeding, nurturing and tempering of races. These cycles create an environment conducive to the spiritual, mental, and emotional development, and the perfection of beings.

The Rig Veda is our most accurate window into ancient times. The Seers, the Rishis who wrote these hymns were not only enlightened adepts and genius poets — they were also masters of highly advanced technology and sciences, which included space, the heliosphere, aerial ships, radiation weaponry, and climate modification.

What you read here does not diminish or disregard the value of spiritual knowledge in the sacred Sanskrit texts, or the importance of seeking Enlightenment. In fact this ‘off-world’ perspective embraces and rejoices in the magnificence of the Creator, the Oneness that supports the temporal holographic universe with Its vast spectrum of dimensional realms. Nor does this conclusion demean humanity in any way, for it also celebrates the greatness of every courageous soul who has chosen to come here to participate in the grand ongoing process of seeding the universe.

A Sacred Quiz

The source of all other Sanskrit texts, the Rig Veda is written in early Vedic Sanskrit. Each word often contains multiple and layered meanings. The verses can be understood and translated from the perspective of history, science, philosophy, physics, and metaphysics. In my considered opinion, the Rig Veda reflects the knowledge and wisdom of civilizations far superior to ours and thus gives us authentic glimpses into the previous cycles of time.

Scholars disagree about the meaning of the Sanskrit words in the Rig Veda. The Sanskrit of this ancient text is very different than other later texts such as the Upanishads, the epic Mahabharata, or the even later Puranas. Rig Vedic scholarship is complex, conflicted and confused as these quotes from scholars reveal:

“To this day there is no internally consistent and coherent interpretation of the Vedas.” [‘The Celestial Key to the Vedas’ by B.G Sidharth, Indian physicist and director general of B. M. Birla Science Centre.]

The verses in the Rig Veda have a secret meaning, which employs a double-language method that was deliberately intended. “The language of the Rig Veda is archaic and contains such grammatical devices and linguistic forms which are beyond the reach of the common mind…these create a sort of sacred quiz, which taxes the ingenuity of even the most learned one…There is considerable disagreement among the interpreters of the Rig Veda, particularly in the interpretation of individual words.” [‘The Rigveda, Mandala III’ by Shukla & Shukla]

Advanced science & technology in the Rig Veda

I have translated verses in the Rig Veda that describe rocket fuel, ritual breeding and/or artificial insemination, and Ionospheric heating weather modification similar to HAARP. I admit that four years of teaching myself Sanskrit is insufficient to the task. However in my view, the Rig Veda has yet to be properly translated and certainly has never been translated from the perspective of it containing glimpses of a greater and more technically advanced civilization.

Earth’s current science has now seen over 300 billion galaxies in the universe. Can there be anyone who still believes in the absurd fantasy that we are alone in the universe? The fact that there are countless other life forms in the universe does not imply that there is no God. If anything the stunning depth of multiplicity and beauty ‘out there’ should affirm our faith and trust in the Creator. The Oneness is! Metaphysical wisdom from many sources reveals an eternal immutable inter-connecting force “beneath the curtain of each atom” [Sufi Mahmud Shabistari] and this invisible ‘substance’ for which there are no words is what we all are.

Earth is but one of hundreds of planetary colonies.

The Nobel Prize winning author Doris Lessing wrote a series of unique novels that are illuminating insights into the understanding that we here on planet Earth are but one of hundreds of planetary colonies. By the 1970s Lessing was influenced by Sufism and these sci-fi novels reflect her considerable and highly intelligent spiritual wisdom. Lessing’s ‘Canopus in Argos’ series are powerful enlightening tales that can open our modern minds to a profound understanding of the deeper meaning of life.

There is evidence in the verses that the people who wrote the Rig Veda originally came from the Arctic Circle, which was then a mild climate. They, like so many others, were forced to migrate to escape the ice and brought their knowledge as memory with them. [‘The Arctic Home in the Vedas’ by Lokmanya Bâl Gangâdhar Tilak available online.]

The Ancient Rishis

In our current era we cannot even imagine the states of consciousness of these poet Seers who spontaneously spoke the stunningly beautiful Rig Veda verses. Their brain patterns would have been so completely different to ours. Telepathic and communicating through ‘sound-words’ comparable to spheres of multiple meanings, they would not think in a linear manner. The sounds would have contained and transmitted into the listeners many layers of ideas as states of consciousness, not merely as linear sentences – the way we think today.

I believe that the reason for numerous flawed and confusing translations of the Rig Veda is the glaring fact that our consciousness and our brain power, our ability to think in a deeper and non-linear manner, has so greatly devolved over the millennia through the Cycles of Time, that we have lost the all encompassing powers of perception naturally possessed by the Rishis/Seers who conceived the Rig Veda.

The Rig Veda Seers were carrying the consciousness of the previous cycles of time, the Satya Yuga and the Treta Yuga. Remember that writing was not invented until our current Kali Yuga era and is considered a degenerate symptom of this final cycle of time. Even the material world would have appeared quite differently in those days.

Translations are ‘forced’ to adapt to preconceived beliefs.

Scholars who translate the Rig Veda cannot agree on the meaning of the words and Indian writers admit that their meaning is ‘forced’ to adapt to preconceived beliefs. It is my view that the Rig Veda is not composed of linear sentences, but uses these ‘spherical’ logographic words that have with layers within layers, and simultaneously provide multiple meanings, which serve to illuminate and connect many fields such as history, science, and metaphysics. Here in our present day Kali Yuga we are trapped in, limited to the five senses, linear and compartmentalized thinking, and no longer have the higher ‘whole mind’ consciousness capable of grasping words as spheres containing layers of meaning.

‘Deva’ means light or the bright shining ones.

The Sanskrit word ‘deva’ is traditionally translated as gods, but literally means light or the bright shining ones. In his book ‘The Celestial Key to the Vedas‘ B.G. Sidharth states, “the Rig Vedic deities are really very definite and subtle scientific entities [principles] and not tribal or semi-tribal gods.” B.G. Sidharth scientific research focuses on Particle Physics and Cosmology, and some feel that he should have received the Nobel Prize for his work in ‘dark energy’. His view is that Rig Vedic “hymns are not religious prayers, but astronomical and other scientific facts or discoveries deliberately and cleverly camouflaged.”

Indian authors have published a number of books that compare Vedic thought with modern science and quantum physics theories. Only a highly and technologically advanced civilization could have evolved the subtle ideas expressed in the Vedas.

The connection and correlation between the Sanskrit texts and quantum physics, Erwin Schrodinger’s cat, is well known. I have read six books by Indian scientists who are finding physics, string theory, quantum physics, and astronomy in the Sanskrit texts. These ideas are very subtle and could only have come from a more advanced civilization.

Limited to differentiated five-sense perception

The ancient Seers were very aware that as we moved down through the Cycles of Time, our perceptions would diminish until we reach the point of being limited to the five senses. The Rishis knew that as ‘density’ increased and human consciousness devolved into a miasma of amnesia, we would not be able to comprehend words as ‘spheres’ of layered and multiple meanings. Therefore in order to preserve sacred Truth throughout the ensuing degeneration of human consciousness in Time, they encoded the eternal metaphysical principles that create, sustain, and destroy the universe into personified deities to make these abstract subtle concepts easier for limited five-sense perception to grasp.

About the Author

V. Susan Ferguson is the author of Inanna Returns, Inanna Hyper-Luminal her own commentary on the Bhagavad Gita and the Shiva Sutras and Colony Earth & the Rig Veda. Her website is Metaphysical Musing.

This article is offered under Creative Commons license. It’s okay to republish it anywhere as long as attribution bio is included and all links remain intact.

Help Waking Times to raise the vibration by sharing this article with the buttons below…


Hinduism Symbols

ਊ swastika symbol featured on a tile at Hindu temple on Diu Island, India. The symbol is one of good luck and good fortune.

John Seaton Callahan/Getty Images

There are two primary symbols associated with Hinduism, the om and the swastika. The word swastika means "good fortune" or "being happy" in Sanskrit, and the symbol represents good luck. (A diagonal version of the swastika later became associated with Germany’s Nazi Party when they made it their symbol in 1920.)

The om symbol is composed of three Sanskrit letters and represents three sounds (a, u and m), which when combined are considered a sacred sound. The om symbol is often found at family shrines and in Hindu temples.


Colony Earth: Science in The Vedas - Part 1 - History

15 Mar. onwards- Govindapuram

The Age of Vedas

The sacred books of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam have definite historical dates assigned to them. The Tripitakas are said to have been written about the time of Asoka , though the Buddha's date , according to some puranas, went further back by several centuries. The Koran, which is the word of God conveyed to the Prophet, is about 1,200 years old. The New Testament of the Bible is about 2,00 years old. Though no one can assign any definite date to the Vedas, Oreintalists are anxious to discover when they were "composed". Some of them say that it was done about 1,500 BC other suggest that it may have about 3,000 years. Tilak fixes the date as 6,000 BC But modern Orientalists are inclined to bring the date nearer.

If the Buddha was born 2,500 years ago , and if in the Buddha's time it was not known when the Vedas came into existence, then the date of Vedas should be long anterior to this time. But the truth of the matter is that the Vedas are Anaadi and Nitya, with out beginning and with out end and eternal , like sound. They manifest themselves after each Pralaya (deluge). Pralaya and srshti (deluge and creation) alternate The Old Testament speaks of the creation of the present world. According to Hindu Scriptures, there have been many creations before, and also Pralayas. The period of each Srshti and each Pralaya spreads over aeons , infinitely beyond human calculation. The findings of geology, which traces the history of the earth to a period long before the time referred to in the Book of Genesis, confirm this view of cycles of creation and deluge. In fact, the more and the deeper the researchers of modern science, the greater the confirmation for the declarations in our Hindu scriptures. I t is futile, as it will be foolish, to discard these declarations at any time , on the ground that they do not accord with the discoveries of science known till then. For, fresh light thrown by later scientific discoveries provide startling confirmation for many of these declarations.

Orientalists also attempt to fix the date of the Vedas on the basis of certain internal evidence about the relation between the Sun and the stars, etc. The Hindu theory of cycles , however, refers to several creations an d so, the same astronomical coincidences and deviations may have occurred during the period of some past Srstis also. We do not know how many such Pralayas and Srshtis have gone before.

Another method adopted for fixing the age of the Vedas is to go by the changes in the style of Hindu scriptures, from the Rik Samhita down to the Kaavya literature. In the case of spoken languages , it has been computed that gradual mutations took place with the passage of every 200 years. For example, the Tamil language to-day is different from the Tamil of the Sangam age. It is far cry from modern English to old English. American English is different from the orthodox English in use in Britain. On this method of appraisal, it has been suggested that the Vedas should have come into existence 1,500 years ago.

It is common knowledge and experience that if a thing is in constant use, it will wear out and bear marks of such use and wear, and that a thing rarely used . the same is true of languages also. English, Tamil and Hindi have changed in from through the centuries and undergone even distortions by usage. But the language of the Vedas remains to-day the same in form and feature as it was at time out of memory. The reason for this absence of distortion or deterioration is that Vedic chanting has been so carefully guarded, as not to allow any possibility of a lapse from its pristine form. Of the innumerable Veda Saakhaas, we know now only of one out of the 21 branches of the Rig Veda, three out of the 101 branches of the Yajur Veda, two or possibly three out of 1,000 branches of the Saama Veda, and on e only out of 11 branches of Atharva Veda, one will have to devote to its learning about eight years, night and day.

There are various methods in Vedhaadhyayana (memorising the Veda mantras) which help to preserve the number an d the order of the words and letters of each Veda Mantra. There are specifications regarding the time interval (matra) for the utterance of each letter in a word the part of the body from which each of the sounds in the word should emanate by the exhalation of the breath in an appropriate manner the affinities between the Swaraas in the Vedas and the Swaraas in Sangeeta (music) and the affinities of both (Veda Swaraas and Sangeeta Swaraas) to the natural Swaraas in the sounds produced by animals , birds, etc. These methods of memorising the Veda Mantras are known as Vaakya, Pada, Krama, Ghana, Jata, Swara,etc.

The Vedas are not like the sounds of common speech to undergo periodical changes by usage on the other hand, they have been meticulously preserved as a result of being protected by definite prescriptions and indices relating to the sound measures, their nature, sequence, manner of utterance, etc., which have been preserved by oral transmission from generation to generation. The injunctions relating to the persons who should do the Adhyayana, and the Aachaaraas such persons should observe, are intended to promote this objective. To approach the study of the Vedas with out a clear knowledge of all ramifications and to adopt rough and ready methods for estimating their age will amount to proceeding on a basis which has no bearing on the subject of the study.


Top reviews from India

Top reviews from other countries

I am the wrong person to review this book. Why? Because for ethical reasons I’ve been vegan for 40 years and one of the premises of Colony Earth is that a society – the Alterrans – that had successfully seen the immorality of eating sentient fellow creatures can overturn such ideals when faced with a crisis without exploring ethical alternatives first. It’s as if the author is a closet butcher beating a convert-vegetarians-drum. As a teacher of ecosystems I only wish the author had researched those societies on Earth living in high mountainous regions being vegetarian or nearly so for millennia with as much detail as she’d studied ancient history. Nevertheless, I’ll put that behind me and I can find other aspects of the novel to recommend it to lovers of socio-anthropological science fiction.

Lil is the commander of an Alterran mission desperate to discover how his people can survive on Earth circa 1000 AD after their own planet became uninhabitable. By chance Alterrans have the same DNA as humans, however, their instructions are to avoid contact a la Star Trek’s Prime Directive only called the Non Interference Directive, which is broken immediately when Lil experimentally takes his guards on a hunt to kill mastodons. This is a source of immense guilt for Lil. They use mind control over ravens and wolves using advanced technology and so again negating their ethics on treating all sentient creatures with equanimity as they did on Alterra. Two humans come into contact with them. One, Alana, a survivor of Atlantis is beautiful. Her people have survival problems with Danish (Viking) marauders and Droods, an interesting (human?) species that can cloak themselves. There’s a lot here. Maybe too much with respect to anthropological conflicts and technology inventions. I’m reminded of those Charles Stross novels (eg Accelerando) where something new is on each page – and that’s a compliment! All stories need conflict and there is plenty here, with teasing and resolution for some. While the story rattles along there is too much head-hopping as the point-of-view changes sometimes within a paragraph: tricky then to engage with a main character for long. Even so, the relationships and environmental issues are explored in an interesting if not always in an ecologically efficient way.
The pace slows when Lil fights with his conscious and when he tells the reader what he discovers in the library, and from his mind ‘teacher’ in long passages that should have been edited to be much tighter. Even so, and notwithstanding the terrible spelling error of Chapter in the Kindle TOC, I can recommend this novel for its treasure trove of ideas and anthropological explorations.

I do not usually read science fiction but was intrigued by this book. I am very pleased I took the trouble to make the purchase.

The idea of people from another planet coming to Earth in prehistoric times and bringing their technological expertise to primitive people was a clever idea and very well carried out.

The characters are very believable and it is easy to empathise with their plights. The characters from space are able to foresee threats, such as a comet, and the humans believe in simple, earthly magic. Together they are able to help each other in ways I wouldn't have imagined.

The narrative is beautifully written. This is an engaging read and promises an exciting sequel.

I loved the basic storyline here but in the end it became hard work. There is overly frequent references throughout the book to what I can only describe as a preoccupation with "domestic" issues. Sorry, that's the way it seemed to me.

Although surprised, I could live with a leading male character called Lil. But not the continued obsession with whether things smelt nice or nasty and numerous references to the wonder of self cleaning clothes.

Trivial stuff, maybe, but it got in the way of what appeared to be a story line with real potential. **

Brief synopsis: Lil is a captain and future destined leader of Alterran, who is stationed on Hawan, what was supposed to be a temporary Earth shelter. Lil came to Earth with a group of explorers and has been stranded, since their portal was incapacitated. Now, their food supply is approaching dangerously low levels and a massive comet is heading toward them. While out on a trial hunting trip, Lil and his crew stumble upon Alana and Maya, two women of the Earth. Lil opens an entire universe of problems, when he agrees to help them, going against the non-disturbance law.

Originality: What I love about this book is that the Earth Lil is living on is 10 to 11,000 years ago, based on the mastodons and cave people hunting them. Some of these cave people are special, born from Atlantis, like Alana. I love the opposites interaction of the cave people, who dress in furs and hides with the conflict of the Alterrans, who can change their garment to be whatever they want it to be and even make it a protective shield.

Characters: I very much enjoyed the characters Alana and Maya and their friendship that carried me through the story. Through heart-wrenching tough times, they never give up. I found that I actually enjoyed the scenes where I was involved with Alana's side of things the most in the story and I felt most for her when things went wrong. A thought the relationship between Lil and Alana was well developed and clever and especially enjoyed the nervous courting.

I did like Lil and his uncertainty, as he balanced what he thought was right and what was right-according to his people. It was cool to follow him through Hawan so I could see the structure of the compound, the imaginary waterfall and cool holograms. That said, I think the nature environment surrounding Alana drew me in more to her side of the story than the rigid compound of Hawan. I have to confess I am not a hard science fiction reader, so I do get a little lost when descriptions get lengthy to explain and somehow convince the the reader of the possibility that things can actually happen.

The one problem I did have with the book were too many secondary characters. With science fiction-fantasy like this, the names are already unusual and difficult to keep track of at first when you are getting to know them. There were so many introduced in the first chapter, I got lost for a bit, but definitely found my way into an amazing story. The author's descriptive and colorful visuals drew me into each and every scene.

Recommendation: Colony Earth goes well with a power bar-if you read, you'll understand why, oh and mead! This book is well polished and I highly recommend it for sci-fantasy and medium to hard science fiction readers.


Deva Maya as Divine Wizardry

This expression &ldquodivine wizardry&rdquo is often used by J.A.B. van Buitenen to mean the Sanskrit word MAYA. The actual Devanagari Sanskrit according to M.N. Dutt is devamaya, thus combining the word for god, deva, with maya. Maya is often misunderstood in the west. Maya is not mere illusion. Maya is creative power, force, from the verb-root mA meaning &lsquoto measure, to limit, give form, or that which measures.&rsquo Even the Sanskrit word deva provides confusion and challenge, for the origin of deva is &lsquoshining&rsquo from the verb-root div meaning to shine, one who shines, gods, celestial being, light-giver, abode, sphere &mdash thus inner non-reflected light, Light Beings.

To illustrate the difficulties encountered when translating Sanskrit words into English and how the meanings have changed over time, I will use this word SABHA as an example. According to the Monier-Williams Sanskrit to English Dictionary, the word was used in the Rig Veda (the older &lsquoVedic Sanskrit&rsquo) to mean: an assembly, congregation, meeting, council, public audience.

The date of the Rig Veda is unknown and unknowable. By the time the Mahabharata was written, somewhere widely between 900 BCE and 400 AD, the meaning of SABHA had changed into: a place for public meetings, large assembly-room of hall, palace, court of a king or of justice, council-chamber, gambling house, etc.

Thus J.A.B. van Buitenen translates the descriptions of the celestial god&rsquos (devas meaning beings of light) abodes in the Sabha-Parva as &lsquoHalls of the Worlds Guardians&rsquo, while M.N. Dutt uses &lsquoAssembly-Hall&rsquo. However it appears that in the earlier era of the Rig Veda this word did not imply a physical structure, but was perhaps describing aggregates of beings who are magnetically aligned by states of consciousness &ndash and the reason for &lsquothe constant shifting into another indescribable appearance, from instant to instant&rsquo is because there is no solidity, at least not as we experience it in our limited five-sense perception.


Vedic Science Vs Modern Science I


Is Vedic Science really science in disguise? Is it some kind of a rc heological find of something very sophisticated and highly advanced science and technology? Did our ancestors have all answers to our questions? Did we have access to nuclear technology, did they understand atomic physics, and could they cure any disease? Did they fly planes?

Many Indians are enamored with their ancient history. It gives them a hope and confidence which they lack in the modern world. Trying to find some glimmer of achievement, they go back into distant past and find solace in unraveling the mysterious conundrums and cryptic statements from ancient texts. Some so-called scholars, who seem to have monopoly on interpretation of these documents, invest great deal of time and energy to ‘prove’ to us that indeed our ancestors had all the answers – that their science was more advanced than the modern-day Quantum Physics.

Though no remarkable achievement has come from these studies into our ancient books we continue to attribute undue credit to them. No breathtaking scientific theory or a simple contraption that actually works has come out of those studies. Yet, we continue to be enamored of our ancient texts, touting them as alternate science. What is sad is that there is a big school of thought in India , harbored by our intellectuals, scientists and physicists, that continues to cripple our scientific temperament, leading to celebration of blind belief, superstition and irrationality.

One may ask, why so much obsession with these ancient texts? What purpose does it serve?

It actually serves two purposes.

One, it gives most Indians a reason to feel proud of themselves. If West could arrive at the same conclusions using the path of modern science through Age of Enlightenment, toiling in labs and conducting elaborate resea rc h, our ancestors have in fact discovered all of them, thousands of years ago, only by meditation under banyan trees and by experiencing it through deep consciousness. This allows Indians to say to the West- “Look we were always ahead of you. And we don’t need your empiricism, rigor, and scientific methods to arrive at the same conclusions. We have our own methods. Our practice of looking at the world spiritually is as relevant as yours, which is based in lowly materialism.”

Second, it gives some Indians a taste of ‘pure Indian’ achievement, in which there is no participation or involvement of Muslims, Christians, and other invading people. It gives them a taste of what they were originally- great and supreme beings that had answers to all the problems of the world before they got corrupted by alien fo rc es. They relish in ‘pure Indian’ discoveries and inventions that preceded all advances made in the West. Now, they can find reasons for Akhand Bharat and Hindutva, and give legitimacy to Aryan supremacy.

Finding more than what Vedas says

Many of these new age Indians are fascinated with their ancient achievements. They try to find meanings and achievements in those places where there are none. If there are no achievements, they want to create them. Trying to read into poems, calling bears and wolves and bosons and fermions, these studies make a mockery of our intelligence. Instead of spending time in developing modern science by spending time in resea rc h, they want to sip chai and equate the modern sciences with the poetry of our ancient folks.

I discredit most of these attempts , this fascination with ancient texts, deciphering them, creating new terminologies and concepts to explain them, making fantastic and completely ridiculous analogies to prove them as alternate science. I like Vedas, for what they are- for the mythology with a dose of philosophy. There are many mythological documentaries in each civilization. Mythology and even philosophy of olden days should be read as such.

If one were to analyze “Lord of the Rings” by J.R.R. Tolkien few thousands years from now, this future man may conclude that we actually had Middle Earth, elves, dwarfs, etc, and that we could conjure up the dead and use them as armies, and that some of us were immortal, etc. Such books should be read as mythology or as fiction. Trying to solve the hidden puzzles to come up with theories that indeed we had middle earth would be foolish. That’s exactly what we are doing each time we utter the word ‘Vedic Sciences’.

Vedas are Vedic. Let them be. They are ancient. There is nothing scientific about them. However, we see many trends in modern India which suggest the contrary. There is an attempt to glorify these ancient texts as alternate science. I could go on and take many examples. Instead, I thought I will concentrate on one such attempt and see what merit it carries. [To be continued.]

30 comments:

I can understand where you are coming from. I had a physics teacher in 12th standard who used to discuss more about mysteries of veda than physics. Once he was teaching about the secret power of "Om" and told that "Om" is actually three letters a+u+m, which correspond to electron, proton and neutron respectively. Someone pointed out that now it is established that atom has more than three subatomic particles and he became upset.

In many ways we have indeed reversed our gears and gone back even beyond the ancient authors. For example, Shankara in his Gita bhashya takes great pains to elaborate why Veda-s CANNOT be taken as authority in physical world -- something modern vedic scientists may find difficult to stomach. Similarly, author of Meemamsa Sutras - Jaimini- argues at length why deities mentioned in Veda-s CANNOT be considered actual beings -- something Rama Sethu supporters will find outrageous.

Hmm. Tricky justification. However these kind of "things" cannot be proved.. So :)

I like Vedas, for what they are- for the mythology with a dose of philosophy.

Sujai, I didn't know you'd done a thorough study of vedas. )

Looks like you're running out of material to write posts, hence recycling older rants. What happened? No more roads being dug up in your neighborhood? Have people stopped spitting? :)

Oh and btw, Blogger has a functional archive section.

Sujai,
I agree with your following claims:
1." Many Indians are enamored with their ancient history. It gives them a hope and confidence which they lack in the modern world. it gives most Indians a reason to feel proud of themselves"
2."Second, it gives some Indians a taste of ‘pure Indian’ achievement, in which there is no participation or involvement of Muslims, Christians, and other invading people"
However I do not understand why you waste time and energy by writing on old topics when there are important current affairs- Raj Thackeray, for example.Got to agree with chirkut on this one-"Looks like you're running out of material to write posts, hence recycling older rants".)
Also chirkut read my mind when writing "I like Vedas, for what they are- for the mythology with a dose of philosophy.

Sujai, I didn't know you'd done a thorough study of vedas. )
"

In future please do not write about something about which you have zero knowledge. I expect better from a rational fellow like you.
Kindly note: absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.

Please spare some time to visit the following link:
http://hinduwisdom.info/Vimanas.htm

http://hinduwisdom.info/Vimanas.htm
makes my case.

You don’t have to waste much time reading through the garbage. Any one sentence is good enough.

Loot at this one:
" The atomic energy fissions the ninety-nine elements, covering its path by the bombardments of neutrons without let or hindrance. Desirous of stalking the head, ie. The chief part of the swift power, hidden in the mass of molecular adjustments of the elements, this atomic energy approaches it in the very act of fissioning it by the above-noted bombardment. Herein, verily the scientists know the similar hidden striking force of the rays of the sun working in the orbit of the moon." (Atharva-veda 20.41.1-3).

And when you start asking questions, you will realize that atomic energy, neutrons, etc, are all made up.

In one discussion, one translator actually translated a story of bear and wolves and said that they were in fact bosons and fermions.

I just don't understand why we Indians (Hindus esp.) are so obsessed with our (fictitious or real) achievements in the ancient past. We are not living in the past. We are living in the PRESENT. What use is a glorious past?? Why can't we concentrate on making the PRESENT glorious.

"We had this", "we did this", "we were great"..blah blah. What are we NOW? What are we doing NOW? Why can't we think of beating the U.S. and Japan in science and technology TODAY.

Even if we really had 'flying machines' 5000 years ago, the fact is that currently we manufacture flying machines according to modern standards of Western Aeronautical Engineering. If somebody is so proud of ancient Vedic science and medicine, why does not he/she try TO APPLY that and invent/discover things in THE CURRENT FRAMEWORK OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, HERE AND NOW??

Till there is no DEMONSTRATION, NO PROOF, all this "Vedic science" will remain great stuff for science fiction.

The Vedas and Upanishads were compiled with great wisdom, with a lot of empirical observation about physical nature,human nature, and with a lot of deep philosophy. Unfortunately, many shlokas use figurative metaphors to describe deep philosophical concepts, which some people try to take in the literal sense. Understand the "bhavaarth", not just the "shlokaarth" !!

And guys, please learn to live in the present, and develop self-esteem independent of ancient achievements. Try to create something new that your descendants would be proud of!!

And to the person named 'Chirkut', do you get some kind of sadistic pleasure out of poking and irritating people??
I've been reading most of your responses in previous posts, and very few go into constructive debate with rational arguments. Most of them have a subtle dig just to provoke.
Cut it out, please.

Chirkut and Anonymous:
You still don’t get it, do you?

I don’t pander to the tastes and wishes of my commenters. I never said that this blog is a discussion forum for contemporary events. If you like to read contemporary events, please pick up a newspaper.

Sometimes I am reflective other times I get triggered by what happens around me, including the national events on the news or local events during interactions.

" The atomic energy fissions the ninety-nine elements, covering its path by the bombardments of neutrons without let or hindrance. Desirous of stalking the head, ie. The chief part of the swift power, hidden in the mass of molecular adjustments of the elements, this atomic energy approaches it in the very act of fissioning it by the above-noted bombardment. Herein, verily the scientists know the similar hidden striking force of the rays of the sun working in the orbit of the moon." (Atharva-veda 20.41.1-3).

Lol. That is some hilarious nonsense

I could not agree more locutus83 please learn to live in the present

The first person who needs to learn to live with "Be Here Now" principle is the author of this Blog. Instead of being utmost apologetic and ashamed on the shameful past and threatened about uncertain fears in the future, it would be good to live in the present.

You just poured my heart out.

instead of being utmost apologetic and ashamed on the shameful past.

There is a big difference between being 'apologetic and ashamed' about one's past
AND
bursting the bubble of unfounded grandiosity and an inflated image of oneself based on non-achievement.

bursting the bubble of unfounded grandiosity and an inflated image of oneself based on non-achievement

I think you are right Sujai. We are just one inflated bubble of pseudo-pride and ego.

Question is - What do we need more - some Blogs that could inspire by humble and simple deeds, identifying the hidden good so that we start working towards "realistic" goals, or some one who just pokes all the holes in our disgraced past and doomed future?

May be, we need a little bit of both. May be you are not the guy who could or would like to inspire in a way that great leaders do. Though, you could argue that as a leader your job is to bring people back to ground and show how inflated their sense of self is and provide pointers to the real things that they should be proud of and enhance that part.

Keep doing what you are doing but remember to "Be Here NOW".

SKapur:
May be you are not the guy who could or would like to inspire in a way that great leaders do.

A Blog is not everything in a man's life. It is only one facet.

Can I read people's blogs and know what they do in their lives? [May be you can, I cannot.]

locutus83: If you have a problem with my comments, here's a simple solution: just skip them.

I agree with Sujai on certain issues, and disagree on others and let him know through my comments. Why are you getting all huffed up? Take a chill pill. )

Sujai: Can I read people's blogs and know what they do in their lives?

The assumption here is that the Blog is authentic. It assumes that you are writing what you really think and truly believe in. If that is true, then what you write is a complete reflection of what you are, if not, then one can never infer anything from Blog writers.

The question is - Is your Blog authentic and does it portray your real-self?

I am sorry, I just realised that is is taking this discussion on a tangent and away from the core topic that you started discussing. We could just leave it here, I guess, I understand what you are trying to achieve here.

Frankly speaking, indians do have a certain attachment with what our ancestors have done.

Means, if vedas had everything like flying machines and all,then why did britain went on to usher the industrial revolution and become the first developed nation. Same with america. In my opinion, as now i have realized,indians dont have that penchant for thinking something out of box,like tinkering with machine or going on for creativity. Till now, i am yet to hear an engineering stud like tesla or edison from india. Ok, dr vishvesharaya was there. Apart from that we are declining in the production of real technocrats or scientist. All we look are faked child geniuses.

People in india do everything just to get a job. Not to become a leader in a field.

On the importance/relevance of this topic, that a few people have raised:
If people dont speak up about this nonsense, our high school physics book will have chapters on Vedas too! (I strongly suspect its going to be the case, in a few elections)

I think the validity(or invalidity) of the science and power of Veda cannot be argued by anybody who was born after 1900 AD.

So i thought why don't i list some of the facts that are known and leave the assertions to the individual's common sense.

Facts
1. The compilation of entire vedas (unlike any other human creation on earth) is so huge that no single person has ever come close to reading (or even begin to understand) it.
2. Ayurveda (science of medicine), Samaveda (science of Music), AtharvanaVeda (science of Metaphysics) which is 10,000 years old, is still being practiced in south India.
3. The origin of such huge compilation is still a mystery and is till date unconclusively debated.
4. The modern science is primarily focused on building industrial technologies unlike Vedic science which predominantly focuses on the science of life itself and the way to lead it.

I am sure there are more. but ..the above things are more than enough for me proudly say that i am a decendent of such a highly sophisticated civilization and may be someday if I have enough money i will try to learn sanskrit to appreciate the riches of Vedic science.

"Instead of spending time in developing modern science by spending time in research, they want to sip chai and equate the modern sciences with the poetry of our ancient folks" - Excellent words penned there.

This guy is one of those Hindu Nationalist kinds. Interesting.

"At JREF (James Randi Educational Foundation), we offer a one-million-dollar prize to anyone who can show, under proper observing conditions, evidence of any paranormal, supernatural, or occult power or event."

Do we have anyone here who would be able to take that challenge and
prove astrology to be right once and for all ?

James Randi debunks Astrology
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tFwOeXi3Yz8

I just got banned from a vedic astrology forum, where I had posted a rather famous lecture of Swami Vivekananda debunking predictive astrology.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/vedic-astrology/message/101729

I had posted the link to this post of yours along with other sources debunking astrology. I had quoted Dante (your favorite quote). They associated me with your blog & got kicked out. They have stereotyped me as someone who debunks hinduism.
In their own words THIS IS THIER OPINION OF YOUR BLOG (sujaiblog.blogspot.com>>> " The blog which this person used to advertise is
totally anti-hindu, anti-vedic, and infact the blog openly supports
islamic-terrorism and threatens hindus to stop idol-worship and convert to islam
or chrishtianity. The blog uses super argumentative skills to insult hindus.
This person is covertly adopting the debates of astrology v/s science to break
the backbone of our ancient culture and convert all Indians to other abrahamic
religions. I bet that in next decade, such persons will even start arguing that
we dont need temples as they are "unscientific". Hence its upto all of us to be
pro-active in replying aptly to this person rather than ignore. Otherwise the
day is not far when laws come into force (with the
help of such intellectuals) that debars hindu religion and temples and all our
ancient culture." <<<

Meanwhile as someone who knows the principles of vedic astrology inside out, I will take it upon me to debunk it point by point. Though you have effectively debunked it outside-in I would like to do so inside-out.

This would be in the interest of the desperate indians who are swayed by such beliefs.

Although I agree, by doing so we cannot give (false) hope to the hope seeker, we can stop them from being led astray.

Swami Vivekananda debunks it thoroughly here-->
http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Complete_Works_of_Swami_Vivekananda/Volume_8/Notes_Of_Class_Talks_And_Lectures/Man_The_Maker_Of_His_Destiny

If you do not believe in James Randi, I would offer all readers a more
"credible" Indian source with lesser prize (Rs. 20 lakhs!).

The challenge by Prabir Ghosh:- On behalf of Science and Rationalist
Association of India, Mr. Prabir Ghosh will pay Rs. 20,00,000 to
anyone who claims to possess supernatural power of any kind and proves
the same.

The Science and Rationalists' Association of India (Bharatiya Bigyan O
Yuktibadi Samiti) is predominantly a rationalist group based in
Kolkata, India. It was established on March 1, 1985 by rationalist
Prabir Ghosh, which happens to be the international rationalists' day.
The association has prominent philosophers like Khushwant Singh and
Paul Kurtz as its members, and preaches against irrational blind faith
and superstition.

Challenge to miracle and astrology

The group offers a prize of Rs. 20,00,000 ($50,000) to anyone who can
demonstrate "supernatural power of any kind" or make accurate
astrological predictions/calculations under proper observing
conditions. Many godmen and astrologers have accepted this renowned challenge and have been defeated.

I think this article is a chit-chat gossip about "Vedic Science vs Modern Science" with no definite conclusion or result. Further more, its an article discussing Science, but talks about feelings and sentiments of Indians about it. I think it will be more productive to show with examples and case studies convincing skeptical western scientists how effective the ancient Indian sciences were as compared to modern science and why they are termed as mythology and not fully accepted in the modern western scientific diaspora.

Just a heads up: http://ccdb4fs.kek.jp/cgi-bin/img/allpdf?198912227


Restructuring Physics From Its Foundation In Light Of Maharishi's Vedic Science.
John S. Hagelin (Maharishi U. of Management)

and before you laugh too much:

Recently I came across a book on Vedic Sciences-What are They? written by Dr. Vedavyas. Please find below the details of the book. This book gives lot of information on who invented what with lot of references.


Scientific Verification of Vedic Knowledge: Archaeology Online

A vast number of statements and materials presented in the ancient Vedic literatures can be shown to agree with modern scientific findings and they also reveal a highly developed scientific content in these literatures. The great cultural wealth of this knowledge is highly relevant in the modern world.

Techniques used to show this agreement include:

• Marine Archaeology of underwater sites (such as Dvaraka)

• Satellite imagery of the Indus-Sarasvata River system,

• Carbon and Thermoluminiscence Dating of archaeological artifacts

• Scientific Verification of Scriptural statements

• Linguistic analysis of scripts found on archaeological artifacts

• A Study of cultural continuity in all these categories.

Introduction

Early indologists wished to control & convert the followers of Vedic Culture, therefore they widely propagated that the Vedas were simply mythology.

Max Muller, perhaps the most well known early sanskritist and indologist, although later in life he glorified the Vedas, initially wrote that the "Vedas were worse than savage" and "India must be conquered again by education. it's religion is doomed"

Thomas Macaulay, who introduced English education into India wanted to make the residents into a race that was: " Indian in blood and color, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals, and in intellect."


However, the German Philosopher
Arthur Schopenhauer stated that the Sanskrit understanding of these Indologists was like that of young schoolboys.

These early Indologists:

• Devised the Aryan Invasion theory, denying India's Vedic past

• They taught that the English educational system is superior

• They intentionally misinterpreted sanskrit texts to make the Vedas look primitive.

• And they systematically tried to make Indians ashamed of their own culture

• Thus the actions of these indologists seems to indicate that they were motivated by a racial bias.

Innumerable archaeological findings and their analysis have recently brought the Aryan Invasion Theory into serious question. This theory is still taught as fact in many educational systems despite much contrary evidence.

The Aryan Invasion Theory Defined

• Vedic Aryans entered India between 1,500 and 1,200 B.C.

• They conquered the native Dravidian culture by virtue of their superiority due to their horses & iron weapons

• They Imported the Vedic culture and it's literatures.

• This Aryan Invasion Theory, however, deprives the inhabitants of India of their Vedic heritage. The wealth of their culture came from foreign soil.

The Aryan Invasion Theory raises an interesting dilemna called Frawleys Paradox: On the one hand we have the vast Vedic Literature without any archaeological finds associated with them and on the other hand, we have 2,500 archaeological sites from the Indus-Sarasvata civilization without any literature associated with them.

A preponderance of contemporary evidence now seems to indicate that these are one and the same cultures. This certainly eliminates this paradox and makes perfect sense, to an unbiased researcher.

Facts which cast serious doubt on the Aryan Invasion Theory

• There is no evidence of an Aryan homeland outside of India mentioned anywhere in the Vedas. On the contrary, the Vedas speak of the mighty Sarasvati River and other places indigenous to India. To date, no evidence for a foreign intrusion has been found, neither archaeological, linguistic, cultural nor genetic.

• There are more than 2,500 Archaeological sites, two-thirds of which are along the recently discovered dried up Sarasvati River bed. These sites show a cultural continuity with the Vedic literature from the early Harrapan civilization up to the present day India.


The archaeological sites along the dried up Sarasvati River basin are represented by black dots.

• Several independent studies of the drying up of the Sarasvati River bed, all indicate the same time period of 1,900 B.C.E.

• The significance of establishing this date for the drying up of the Sarasvati River is, that it pushes the date for the composition of the Rig Veda back to approximately 3,000 B.C.E., as enunciated by the Vedic tradition itself.

• The late dating of the Vedic literatures by indologists is based on speculated dates of 1,500 B.C.E. for the Aryan Invasion and 1,200 B.C.E. for the Rig Veda, both now disproved by scientific evidence.

Max Muller, the principal architect of the Aryan Invasion theory, admitted the purely speculative nature of his Vedic chronology, and in his last work published shortly before his death, The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy, he wrote: "Whatever may be the date of the Vedic hymns, whether 15 hundred or 15,000 B.C.E., they have their own unique place and stand by themselves in the literature of the world."

The Vedic Culture is indigenous to India

It can be scientifically proven that the Vedic Culture is indigenous, through archaeology, the study of cultural continuity, by linguistic analysis, and genetic research.

For example, the language and symbolism found on the Harappan seals are very Vedic. We find the Om symbol, the leaf of the Asvatta or holy banyan tree, as well as the swastika, or sign of auspiciousness, mentioned throughout the Vedas. Om is mentioned in the Mundaka and Katha Upanisads as well as the Bhagavad Gita.

The Holy Asvatta tree is mentioned in the Aitareya and SatapataBrahmanas as well as the Taittiriya Samhita and KatyayanaSmrti.

The pictoral script of these Harappan seals has been deciphered as consistently Vedic and termed "Proto-brahmi," as a pre-sanskrit script.

This piece of pottery from the lowest level of Harappan excavations with pre-harappan writing is deciphered as ila vartate vara, referring to the sacred land bounded by the Sarasvati River, described in the Rig Veda.

Additionally, other archaeological finds are culturally consistent, such as the dancing girl, whose bracelets are similar to those worn by women of Northwest India today as well as

the three stone Siva Lingas found in Harappa by M. S. Vats in 1940. The worship of the Siva Linga is mentioned in the Maha Narayana Upanisad of the Yajur Veda and is still ardently practiced today.

The Vedas were maligned by early indologists because of their disagreement with their Eurocentric colonialists world view, a view which produced and depended on the Aryan Invasion Theory. The fact that the Aryan Invasion Theory has been seriously challenged recently by scholars and indologists, adds credence to the Vedas as viable, accurate and indigenous sources of information.

Satellite imagery of the Dried Up Sarasvati River Basin

Using modern scientific methods, such as satellite imagery and dating techniques, it can be shown that the ancient statements of the Vedas are factual, not mythical as erroneously propagated. High resolution satellite images have verified descriptions in The Rig Veda of the descent of the ancient Sarasvati River from it's source in the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea.

The mighty Sarasvati River and it's civilization are referred to in the Rig Veda more than fifty times, proving that the drying up of the Sarasvati River was subsequent to the origin of the Rig Veda, pushing this date of origin back into antiquity, casting further doubt on the imaginary date for the so-called Aryan Invasion.

The Satellite image (above) clearly shows the Indus-Sarasvata river system extending from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea. Here the Indus River is on the left, outlined in blue, while the Sarasvati River basin is outlined in green. The black dots are the many archeological sites or previous settlements along the banks of the now dry Sarasvati River.

The drying up of the Sarasvati River around 1900 B.C.E. is confirmed archaeologically. Following major tectonic movements or plate shifts in the Earth's crust, the primary cause of this drying up was due to the capture of the Sarasvati River's main tributaries, the Sutlej River and the Drishadvati River by other rivers.

Although early studies, based on limited archaeological evidence produced contradictory conclusions, recent independent studies, such as that of archaeologist James Shaffer in 1993, showed no evidence of a foreign invasion in the Indus Sarasvata civilization and that a cultural continuity could be traced back for millennia.

In other words, Archaeology does not support the Aryan Invasion Theory.

Evidence for the Ancient Port City of Dvaraka

Marine archaeology has also been utilized in India off the coast of the ancient port city of Dvaraka in Gujarat, uncovering further evidence in support of statements in the Vedic scriptures. An entire submerged city at Dvaraka, the ancient port city of Lord Krishna with its massive fort walls, piers, warfs and jetty has been found in the ocean as described in the Mahabharata and other Vedic literatures.

This sanskrit verse from the Mausala Parva of the Mahabharata, describes the disappearance of the city of Dvaraka into the sea.

Dr. S. R. Rao, formerly of the Archaeological Survey of India, has pioneered marine archaeology in India. Marine archaeological findings seem to corroborate descriptions in the Mahabharata of Dvaraka as a large, well-fortified and prosperous port city, which was built on land reclaimed from the sea, and later taken back by the sea. This lowering and raising of the sea level during these same time periods of the 15 th and 16 th centuries B.C.E. is also documented in historical records of the country of Bahrain.

Amongst the extensive underwater discoveries were the massive Dvaraka city wall, a large door-socket and a bastion from the fort wall.

Two rock-cut slipways of varying width, extending from the beach to the intertidal zone, a natural harbor, as well as a number of olden stone ship anchors were discovered, attesting to Dvaraka being an ancient port city.

The three headed motif on this conch-shell seal (above), found in the Dvaraka excavations, corroborates the reference in the scripture Harivamsa that every citizen of Dvaraka should carry a mudra or seal of this type.

All these underwater excavations add further credibility to the validity of the historical statements found in the Vedic literatures.

Thirty-five Archaeological Sites in North India

Apart from Dvaraka, more than thirty-five sites in North India have yielded archaeological evidence and have been identified as ancient cities described in the Mahabharata. Copper utensils, iron, seals, gold & silver ornaments, terracotta discs and painted grey ware pottery have all been found in these sites. Scientific dating of these artifacts corresponds to the non-aryan-invasion model of Indian antiquity.

Furthermore, the Matsya and Vayu Puranas describe great flooding which destroyed the capital city of Hastinapur, forcing its inhabitants to relocate in Kausambi. The soil of Hastinapur reveals proof of this flooding. Archaeological evidence of the new capital of Kausambi has recently been found which has been dated to the time period just after this flood.

Similarly, in Kurukshetra, the scene of the great Mahabharata war, Iron arrows and spearheads (according to some sources) have been excavated and dated by thermoluminence to 2,800 B.C.E., the approximate date of the war given within the Mahabharata itself.

The Mahabharata also describes three cities given to the Pandavas, the heroes of the Mahabharata, after their exile:

Paniprastha, Sonaprastha & Indraprastha, which is Delhi's Puranaqila. These sites have been identified and yielded pottery & antiquities, which show a cultural consistency & dating consistent for the Mahabharata period, again verifying statements recorded in the Vedic literatures.

Renowned Thinkers Who Appreciated the Vedic Literatures

Although early indologists, in their missionary zeal, widely vilified the Vedas as primitive mythology, many of the worlds greatest thinkers admired the Vedas as great repositories of advanced knowledge and high thinking


Arthur Schopenhauer, the famed German philosopher and writer, wrote that: I ". encounter [in the Vedas] deep, original, lofty thoughts. suffused with a high and holy seriousness."

The well-known early American writer Ralph Waldo Emerson, read the Vedas daily. Emerson wrote: "I owed a magnificent day to the Bhagavat-Gita"

Henry David Thoreau said: "In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita. in comparison with which. our modern world and its literature seems puny and trivial."

So great were Emerson and Thoreau's appreciation of Vedantic literatures that they became known as the American transcendentalists. Their writings contain many thoughts from Vedic Philosophy.

Other famous personalities who spoke of the greatness of the Vedas were: Alfred North Whitehead (British mathematician, logician and philosopher), who stated that: "Vedanta is the most impressive metaphysics the human mind has conceived."

Julius Robert Oppenheimer, the principle developer of the atomic bomb, stated that "The Vedas are the greatest privilege of this century." During the explosion of the first atomic bomb, Oppenheimer quoted several Bhagavad-gita verses from the 11th chapter, such as:

"Death I am, cause of destruction of the worlds. "

When Oppenheimer was asked if this is the first nuclear explosion, he significantly replied: "Yes, in modern times," implying that ancient nuclear explosions may have previously occurred.


Lin Yutang, Chinese scholar and author, wrote that: "India was China's teacher in trigonometry, quadratic equations, grammar, phonetics. " and so forth.

Francois Voltaire stated: ". everything has come down to us from the banks of the Ganges."

From these statements we see that many renowned intellectuals believed that the Vedas provided the origin of scientific thought.

The Iron Pillar of Delhi

The Vedic literatures contain descriptions of advanced scientific techniques, sometimes even more sophisticated than those used in our modern technological world.

Modern metallurgists have not been able to produce iron of comparable quality to the 22 foot high Iron Pillar of Delhi, which is the largest hand forged block of iron from antiquity.

This pillar stands at mute testimony to the highly advanced scientific knowledge of metallurgy that was known in ancient India. Cast in approximately the 3rd century B.C., the six and a half ton pillar, over two millennia has resisted all rust and even a direct hit by the artillary of the invading army of Nadir Shah during his sacking of Delhi in 1737.


Vedic Cosmology is yet another ancient Vedic science which can be confirmed by modern scientific findings and this is acknowledged by well known scientists and authors, such as Carl Sagan and Count Maurice Maeterlinck, who recognized that the cosmology of the Vedas closely parallels modern scientific findings.

Carl Sagan stated, "Vedic Cosmology is the only one in which the time scales correspond to those of modern scientific cosmology."

Nobel laureate Count Maurice Maeterlinck wrote of: "a Cosmogony which no European conception has ever surpassed."

French astronomer Jean-Claude Bailly corroborated the antiquity and accuracy of the Vedic astronomical measurements as "more ancient than those of the Greeks or Egyptians." And that, "the movements of the stars calculated 4,500 years ago, does not differ by a minute from the tables of today."

The ninety foot tall astronomical instrument known as Samrat Yantra, built by the learned King Suwai Jai Singh of Jaipur, measures time to within two seconds per day.

Cosmology and other scientific accomplishments of ancient India spread to other countries along with mercantile and cultural exchanges. There are almost one hundred references in the Rig Veda alone to the ocean and maritime activity. This is confirmed by Indian historian R. C. Majumdar, who stated that the people of the Indus-Sarasvata Civilization engaged in trade with Sooma and centers of culture in western Asia and Crete.

The Heliodorus Column and Cultural Links to India

An example of these exchanges is found in the inscriptions on the Heliodorus Column, erected in 113 B.C.E. by Heliodorus, a Greek ambassador to India, and convert to Vaisnavism, as well as the 2nd century B.C.E. Coins of Agathocles, showing images of Krishna and Balaram. These artifacts stand testimony that Sanatan Dharma predates Christianity.

Voltaire, the famous French writer and philosopher) stated that "Pythagoras went to the Ganges to learn geometry." Abraham Seidenberg, author of the authoritative "History of Mathematics," credits the Sulba Sutras as inspiring all mathematics of the ancient world from Babylonia to Egypt to Greece.

As Voltaire & Seidenberg have stated, many highly significant mathematical concepts have come from the Vedic culture, such as:


The theorem bearing the name of the Greek mathematician Pythagorus is found in the Shatapatha Brahmana as well as the Sulba Sutra, the Indian mathematical treatise, written centuries before Pythagorus was born.


The Decimal system, based on powers of ten, where the remainder is carried over to the next column, first mentioned in the Taittiriya Samhita of the Black Yajurveda.


The Introduction of zero as both a numerical value and a place marker.


T he Concept of infinity.

The Binary number system, essential for computers, was used in Vedic verse meters.


A hashing technique, similar to that used by modern search algorithms, such as Googles, was used in South Indian musicology. From the name of a raga one can determine the notes of the raga from this Kathapayadi system. (See Figure at left.)

For further reading we refer you to this excellent article on Vedic Mathematics.

Vedic Sound and Mantras

The Vedas however are not as well known for presenting historical and scientific knowledge as they are for expounding subtle sciences, such as the power of mantras. We all recognize the power of sound itself by it's effects, which can be quite dramatic. Perhaps we all have seen a high-pitched frequency shatter an ordinary drinking glass. Such a demonstration shows that Loud Sounds can produce substantial reactions

It is commonly believed that mantras can carry hidden power which can in turn produce certain effects. The ancient Vedic literatures are full of descriptions of weapons being called by mantra. For example, many weapons were invoked by mantra during the epic Kuruksetra War, wherein the Bhagavad-gita itself was spoken.

The ancient deployment of Brahmastra weapons, equivalent to modern day nuclear weapons are described throughout the Vedic literatures. Additionally, mantras carry hidden spiritual power, which can produce significant benefits when chanted properly. Indeed, the Vedas themselves are sound vibrations in literary form and carry a profound message. Spiritual disciplines recommend meditational practices such as silent meditation, silent recitation of mantras and also the verbal repetition of specific mantras out loud.

A Clinical Test of the Benefits of Mantra Chanting was performed on three groups of sixty-two subjects, males and females of average age 25. They chanted the Hare Krsna Maha Mantra twenty-five minutes each day under strict clinical supervision.

Results showed that regular chanting of the Hare Krsna Maha Mantra reduces Stress and depression and helps reduce bad habits & addictions. These results formed a PhD Thesis at Florida State University.

Spiritual practitioners claim many benefits from Mantra Meditation such as increased realization of spiritual wisdom, inner peace and a strong communion with God and the spiritual realm. These effects may be experienced by following the designated spiritual path.

Most of the evidence given in this presentation is for the apara vidya or material knowledge of the Vedic literatures. The Vedas however, are more renowned for their para vidya or spiritual knowledge. And even superior is the realized knowledge of the Vedic rsis or saints — that which is beyond the objective knowledge of modern science — knowledge of the eternal realm of sat, cit ananda, eternality, blissfullness and full knowledge. But that is another presentation.


Contents

Mesopotamia Edit

From their beginnings in Sumer (now Iraq) around 3500 BC, the Mesopotamian peoples began to attempt to record some observations of the world with extremely thorough numerical data. A concrete instance of Pythagoras' law was recorded as early as the 18th century BC—the Mesopotamian cuneiform tablet Plimpton 322 records a number of Pythagorean triplets (3,4,5) (5,12,13) . dated to approx. 1800 BC, over a millennium before Pythagoras, [1]—but an abstract formulation of the Pythagorean theorem this was not. [1]

Astronomy is a science that lends itself to the recording and study of observations: the rigorous notings of the motions of the stars, planets, and the moon are left on thousands of clay tablets created by scribes. Even today, astronomical periods identified by Mesopotamian scientists are still widely used in Western calendars: the solar year, the lunar month, the seven-day week. Using these data they developed arithmetical methods to compute the changing length of daylight in the course of the year and to predict the appearances and disappearances of the Moon and planets and eclipses of the Sun and Moon. Only a few astronomers' names are known, such as that of Kidinnu, a Chaldean astronomer and mathematician who was contemporary with the Greek astronomers. Kiddinu's value for the solar year is in use for today's calendars. Astronomy and astrology were considered to be the same thing, as evidenced by the practice of this science in Babylonia by priests. Indeed, rather than following the modern trend towards rational science, moving away from superstition and belief, the Mesopotamian astronomy conversely became more astrology-based later in the civilisation - studying the stars in terms of horoscopes and omens, which might explain the popularity of the clay tablets. Hipparchus was to use this data to calculate the precession of the Earth's axis. Fifteen hundred years after Kiddinu, Al-Batani, born in what is now Turkey, would use the collected data and improve Hipparchus' value for the precession of the Earth's axis. Al-Batani's value, 54.5 arc-seconds per year, compares well to the current value of 49.8 arc-seconds per year (26,000 years for Earth's axis to round the circle of nutation).

Babylonian astronomy was "the first and highly successful attempt at giving a refined mathematical description of astronomical phenomena." According to the historian A. Aaboe,

all subsequent varieties of scientific astronomy, in the Hellenistic world, in India, in Islam, and in the West - if not indeed all subsequent endeavour in the exact sciences - depend upon Babylonian astronomy in decisive and fundamental ways. [2]

Egypt Edit

Significant advances in ancient Egypt included astronomy, mathematics and medicine. [3] Their geometry was a necessary outgrowth of surveying to preserve the layout and ownership of farmland, which was flooded annually by the Nile river. The 3-4-5 right triangle and other rules of thumb served to represent rectilinear structures including their post and lintel architecture. Egypt was also a centre of alchemical research for much of the western world.

Egyptian hieroglyphs, a phonetic writing system, have served as the basis for the Egyptian Phoenician alphabet from which the later Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic, and Cyrillic alphabets were derived. The city of Alexandria retained preeminence with its library, which was damaged by fire when it fell under Roman rule, [4] being completely destroyed before 642. [5] [6] With it a huge amount of antique literature and knowledge was lost.

The Edwin Smith papyrus is one of the first medical documents still extant, and perhaps the earliest document that attempts to describe and analyse the brain: it might be seen as the very beginnings of modern neuroscience. However, while Egyptian medicine had some effective practices, it was not without its ineffective and sometimes harmful practices. Medical historians believe that ancient Egyptian pharmacology, for example, was largely ineffective. [7] Nevertheless, it applies the following components: examination, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, to the treatment of disease, empirical method of science and according to G. E. R. Lloyd [8] played a significant role in the development of this methodology. The Ebers papyrus (c. 1550 BC) also contains evidence of traditional empiricism.

According to a paper published by Michael D. Parkins, 72% of 260 medical prescriptions in the Hearst Papyrus had no curative elements. [9] According to Michael D. Parkins, sewage pharmacology first began in ancient Egypt and was continued through the Middle Ages. Practices such as applying cow dung to wounds, ear piercing and tattooing, and chronic ear infections were important factors in developing tetanus. [10] Frank J. Snoek wrote that Egyptian medicine used fly specks, lizard blood, swine teeth, and other such remedies which he believes could have been harmful. [11]

Persia Edit

In the Sassanid period (226 to 652 AD), great attention was given to mathematics and astronomy. The Academy of Gundishapur is a prominent example in this regard. Astronomical tables—such as the Shahryar Tables—date to this period, and Sassanid observatories were later imitated by Muslim astronomers and astrologers of the Islamic period. In the mid-Sassanid era, an influx of knowledge came to Persia from the West in the form of views and traditions of Greece which, following the spread of Christianity, accompanied Syriac (the official language of Christians [ citation needed ] as well as the Iranian Nestorians). The Christian schools in Iran have produced great scientists such as Nersi, Farhad, and Marabai. Also, a book was left by Paulus Persa, head of the Iranian Department of Logic and Philosophy of Aristotle, written in Syriac and dictated to Sassanid King Anushiravan.

A fortunate incident for pre-Islamic Iranian science during the Sassanid period was the arrival of eight great scholars from the Hellenistic civilization, who sought refuge in Persia from persecution by the Roman Emperor Justinian. These men were the followers of the Neoplatonic school. King Anushiravan had many discussions with these men and especially with the man named Priscianus. A summary of these discussions was compiled in a book entitled Solution to the Problems of Khosrow, the King of Persia, which is now in the Saint Germain Library in Paris. These discussions touched on several subjects, such as philosophy, physiology, metabolisms, and natural science as astronomy. After the establishment of Umayyad and Abbasid states, many Iranian scholars were sent to the capitals of these Islamic dynasties.

In the Early Middle Ages, Persia became a stronghold of Islamic science.

Scientific thought in Classical Antiquity becomes tangible from the 6th century BC in pre-Socratic philosophy (Thales, Pythagoras). In c. 385 BC, Plato founded the Academy. With Plato's student Aristotle begins the "scientific revolution" of the Hellenistic period culminating in the 3rd to 2nd centuries with scholars such as Eratosthenes, Euclid, Aristarchus of Samos, Hipparchus and Archimedes.

In Classical Antiquity, the inquiry into the workings of the universe took place both in investigations aimed at such practical goals as establishing a reliable calendar or determining how to cure a variety of illnesses and in those abstract investigations known as natural philosophy. The ancient people who are considered the first scientists may have thought of themselves as natural philosophers, as practitioners of a skilled profession (for example, physicians), or as followers of a religious tradition (for example, temple healers).

The earliest Greek philosophers, known as the pre-Socratics, provided competing answers to the question found in the myths of their neighbours: "How did the ordered cosmos in which we live come to be?" [12] The pre-Socratic philosopher Thales, dubbed the "father of science", was the first to postulate non-supernatural explanations for natural phenomena such as lightning and earthquakes. Pythagoras of Samos founded the Pythagorean school, which investigated mathematics for its own sake, and was the first to postulate that the Earth is spherical in shape. Subsequently, Plato and Aristotle produced the first systematic discussions of natural philosophy, which did much to shape later investigations of nature. Their development of deductive reasoning was of particular importance and usefulness to later scientific inquiry.

The important legacy of this period included substantial advances in factual knowledge, especially in anatomy, zoology, botany, mineralogy, geography, mathematics and astronomy an awareness of the importance of certain scientific problems, especially those related to the problem of change and its causes and a recognition of the methodological importance of applying mathematics to natural phenomena and of undertaking empirical research. [13] In the Hellenistic age scholars frequently employed the principles developed in earlier Greek thought: the application of mathematics and deliberate empirical research, in their scientific investigations. [14] Thus, clear unbroken lines of influence lead from ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophers, to medieval Muslim philosophers and scientists, to the European Renaissance and Enlightenment, to the secular sciences of the modern day. Neither reason nor inquiry began with the Ancient Greeks, but the Socratic method did, along with the idea of Forms, great advances in geometry, logic, and the natural sciences. Benjamin Farrington, former Professor of Classics at Swansea University wrote:

"Men were weighing for thousands of years before Archimedes worked out the laws of equilibrium they must have had practical and intuitional knowledge of the principles involved. What Archimedes did was to sort out the theoretical implications of this practical knowledge and present the resulting body of knowledge as a logically coherent system."

"With astonishment we find ourselves on the threshold of modern science. Nor should it be supposed that by some trick of translation the extracts have been given an air of modernity. Far from it. The vocabulary of these writings and their style are the source from which our own vocabulary and style have been derived." [15]

The level of achievement in Hellenistic astronomy and engineering is impressively shown by the Antikythera mechanism (150-100 BC). The astronomer Aristarchus of Samos was the first known person to propose a heliocentric model of the solar system, while the geographer Eratosthenes accurately calculated the circumference of the Earth. [16] Hipparchus (c. 190 – c. 120 BC) produced the first systematic star catalog. In medicine, Herophilos (335 - 280 BC) was the first to base his conclusions on dissection of the human body and to describe the nervous system. Hippocrates (c. 460 BC – c. 370 BC) and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. Galen (129 – c. 200 AD) performed many audacious operations—including brain and eye surgeries— that were not tried again for almost two millennia. The mathematician Euclid laid down the foundations of mathematical rigour and introduced the concepts of definition, axiom, theorem and proof still in use today in his Elements, considered the most influential textbook ever written. [17] Archimedes, considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, [18] is credited with using the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of pi. [19] He is also known in physics for laying the foundations of hydrostatics and the explanation of the principle of the lever.

Theophrastus wrote some of the earliest descriptions of plants and animals, establishing the first taxonomy and looking at minerals in terms of their properties such as hardness. Pliny the Elder produced what is one of the largest encyclopedias of the natural world in 77 AD, and must be regarded as the rightful successor to Theophrastus.

For example, he accurately describes the octahedral shape of the diamond, and proceeds to mention that diamond dust is used by engravers to cut and polish other gems owing to its great hardness. His recognition of the importance of crystal shape is a precursor to modern crystallography, while mention of numerous other minerals presages mineralogy. He also recognises that other minerals have characteristic crystal shapes, but in one example, confuses the crystal habit with the work of lapidaries. He was also the first to recognise that amber was a fossilized resin from pine trees because he had seen samples with trapped insects within them.

Excavations at Harappa, Mohenjo-daro and other sites of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) have uncovered evidence of the use of "practical mathematics". The people of the IVC manufactured bricks whose dimensions were in the proportion 4:2:1, considered favourable for the stability of a brick structure. They used a standardised system of weights based on the ratios: 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500, with the unit weight equaling approximately 28 grammes (and approximately equal to the English ounce or Greek uncia). They mass-produced weights in regular geometrical shapes, which included hexahedra, barrels, cones, and cylinders, thereby demonstrating knowledge of basic geometry. [20]

The inhabitants of Indus civilisation also tried to standardise measurement of length to a high degree of accuracy. They designed a ruler—the Mohenjo-daro ruler—whose unit of length (approximately 1.32 inches or 3.4 centimetres) was divided into ten equal parts. Bricks manufactured in ancient Mohenjo-daro often had dimensions that were integral multiples of this unit of length. [21] [22]

Mehrgarh, a Neolithic IVC site, provides the earliest known evidence for in vivo drilling of human teeth, with recovered samples dated to 7000-5500 BCE. [23]

Early astronomy in India—like in other cultures— was intertwined with religion. [24] The first textual mention of astronomical concepts comes from the Vedas—religious literature of India. [24] According to Sarma (2008): "One finds in the Rigveda intelligent speculations about the genesis of the universe from nonexistence, the configuration of the universe, the spherical self-supporting earth, and the year of 360 days divided into 12 equal parts of 30 days each with a periodical intercalary month." [24]

Classical Indian astronomy documented in literature spans the Maurya (Vedanga Jyotisha, c. 5th century BCE) to the Vijaynagara(South India) (such as the 16th century Kerala school) periods. The first named authors writing treatises on astronomy emerge from the 5th century, the date when the classical period of Indian astronomy can be said to begin. Besides the theories of Aryabhata in the Aryabhatiya and the lost Arya-siddhānta, we find the Pancha-Siddhāntika of Varahamihira. The astronomy and the astrology of ancient India (Jyotisha) is based upon sidereal calculations, although a tropical system was also used in a few cases.

Alchemy (Rasaśāstra in Sanskrit)was popular in India. It was the Indian alchemist and philosopher Kanada who introduced the concept of 'anu' which he defined as the matter which cannot be subdivided. [25] This is analogous to the concept of atom in modern science.

Linguistics (along with phonology, morphology, etc.) first arose among Indian grammarians studying the Sanskrit language. Aacharya Hemachandrasuri wrote grammars of Sanskrit and Prakrit, poetry, prosody, lexicons, texts on science and logic and many branches of Indian philosophy. The Siddha-Hema-Śabdanuśāśana includes six Prakrit languages: the "standard" Prakrit(virtually Maharashtri Prakrit), Shauraseni, Magahi, Paiśācī, the otherwise-unattested Cūlikāpaiśācī and Apabhraṃśa (virtually Gurjar Apabhraṃśa, prevalent in the area of Gujarat and Rajasthan at that time and the precursor of Gujarati language). He gave a detailed grammar of Apabhraṃśa and also illustrated it with the folk literature of the time for better understanding. It is the only known Apabhraṃśa grammar. [26] The Sanskrit grammar of Pāṇini (c. 520 – 460 BCE) contains a particularly detailed description of Sanskrit morphology, phonology and roots, evincing a high level of linguistic insight and analysis.

Ayurveda medicine traces its origins to the Vedas, Atharvaveda in particular, and is connected to Hindu religion. [27] The Sushruta Samhita of Sushruta appeared during the 1st millennium BC. [28] Ayurvedic practice was flourishing during the time of Buddha (around 520 BC), and in this period the Ayurvedic practitioners were commonly using Mercuric-sulphur combination based medicines. An important Ayurvedic practitioner of this period was Nagarjuna, accompanied by Surananda, Nagbodhi, Yashodhana, Nityanatha, Govinda, Anantdev, Vagbhatta etc. During the regime of Chandragupta Maurya (375-415 AD), Ayurveda was part of mainstream Indian medical techniques, and continued to be so until the Colonial period.

The main authors of classical Indian mathematics (400 CE to 1200 CE) were scholars like Mahaviracharya, Aryabhata, Brahmagupta, and Bhaskara II. Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the decimal number system, zero, negative numbers, arithmetic, and algebra. In addition, trigonometry, having evolved in the Hellenistic world and having been introduced into ancient India through the translation of Greek works, was further advanced in India, and, in particular, the modern definitions of sine and cosine were developed there. These mathematical concepts were transmitted to the Middle East, China, and Europe and led to further developments that now form the foundations of many areas of mathematics.

The first recorded observations of solar eclipses and supernovae were made in China. [29] On July 4, 1054, Chinese astronomers observed a guest star, a supernova, the remnant of which is now called the Crab Nebula. [29] Korean contributions include similar records of meteor showers and eclipses, particularly from 1500-1750 in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty. Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupuncture and herbal medicine were also practised, with similar medicine practised in Korea.

Among the earliest inventions were the abacus, the public toilet, and the "shadow clock". [30] Joseph Needham noted the "Four Great Inventions" of China as among some of the most important technological advances these were the compass, gunpowder, papermaking, and printing, which were later known in Europe by the end of the Middle Ages. The Tang dynasty (AD 618 - 906) in particular was a time of great innovation. [30] A good deal of exchange occurred between Western and Chinese discoveries up to the Qing dynasty.

However, Needham and most scholars recognised that cultural factors prevented these Chinese achievements from developing into what might be considered "modern science".

It was the religious and philosophical framework of the Chinese intellectuals which made them unable to believe in the ideas of laws of nature:

It was not that there was no order in nature for the Chinese, but rather that it was not an order ordained by a rational personal being, and hence there was no conviction that rational personal beings would be able to spell out in their lesser earthly languages the divine code of laws which he had decreed aforetime. The Taoists, indeed, would have scorned such an idea as being too naïve for the subtlety and complexity of the universe as they intuited it.


Watch the video: The Multidimensional Universe of the Vedas Vedic Cosmology, complete series