Haidra

Haidra

One of the earliest Roman settlements in North Africa, Haidra in Tunisia contains the remains of the Roman city of Ammaedara. Well off the beaten track, Haidra – also called Hydrah – attracts few tourists and even the archaeological excavations have been few and far between.

Founded in the first century AD, Ammaedara was originally a legionary outpost, used by the Third Legion Augusta during their campaign against the rebellious Numidian leader Tacfarinas – a deserter from the Roman auxiliaries who led his people in an uprising against Rome during the reign of the Emperor Tiberius.

After the defeat of the rebellion, Ammaedara was settled by veterans from the campaign and grew into a thriving Roman city. Indeed, remains of the cemetery of the 3rd legion have been identified on outskirts of the site.

It is unclear as to whether a pre-Roman settlement existed at Haidra. Though the foundations of a Punic temple to Ba’al-Hamon were found near the site, there is little additional evidence of a major settlement.

The Romans ruled the region until the Vandal invasions of the 5th century AD and the ruins of Haidra contain evidence of the period of Vandal rule as well as the subsequent Byzantine period which followed after Justinian’s successful re-conquest.

Today Haïdra contains a number of interesting ruins dating from the various periods in the city’s history. Perhaps the most impressive is the imposing Byzantine fortress – built around 550 AD on the orders of Justinian, it acted as a defensive stronghold for the newly conquered Byzantine lands.

Dating to around the same period is the Church of Melleus which is in a reasonable state of preservation with a number of surviving columns and interesting inscriptions from the 6th and 7th centuries on the paving stones. Evidence of the Vandal period survives in the form of the Vandal Chapel – dating to the reigns of King Thrasamund and King Hilderic in the early 6th century AD.

Of the other ruins at Haïdra, the most prominent is the Arch of Septimius Severus. Built in 195 AD it remains very well preserved with decorative markings still intact. However, one of the best places to actually explore is the underground bath complex, a series of reasonably intact bath chambers and corridors which you can still wander around freely.

Scant remains of the original market and theatre can also be seen as well as just one surviving column from the ancient temple that stood on the capitol. Other elements to explore at Haïdra include the Roman cemetery and the three mausoleum towers – impressive structures that have survived the ages in pretty good condition.


Adil Shahi dynasty

The Adil Shahi or Adilshahi, was a Shia Muslim, [9] and later Sunni Muslim, [6] [7] [8] dynasty founded by Yusuf Adil Shah, that ruled the Sultanate of Bijapur, centred on present-day Bijapur district, Karnataka in India, in the Western area of the Deccan region of Southern India from 1489 to 1686. [10] Bijapur had been a province of the Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1518), before its political decline in the last quarter of the 15th century and eventual break-up in 1518. The Bijapur Sultanate was absorbed into the Mughal Empire on 12 September 1686, after its conquest by the Emperor Aurangzeb. [11]

The founder of the dynasty, Yusuf Adil Shah (1490–1510), was appointed Bahmani governor of the province, before creating a de facto independent Bijapur state. Yusuf and his son, Ismail, generally used the title Adil Khan. 'Khan', meaning 'Chief' in Mongolian and adopted in Persian, conferred a lower status than 'Shah', indicating royal rank. Only with the rule of Yusuf's grandson, Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1534–1558), did the title of Adil Shah come into common use.

The Bijapur Sultanate's borders changed considerably throughout its history. Its northern boundary remained relatively stable, straddling contemporary Southern Maharashtra and Northern Karnataka. The Sultanate expanded southward, first with the conquest of the Raichur Doab following the defeat of the Vijayanagar Empire at the Battle of Talikota in 1565. Later campaigns, notably during the reign of Mohammed Adil Shah (1627–1657), extended Bijapur's formal borders and nominal authority as far south as Bangalore. Bijapur was bounded on the West by the Portuguese state of Goa and on the East by the Sultanate of Golconda, ruled by the Qutb Shahi dynasty.

The former Bahmani provincial capital of Bijapur remained the capital of the Sultanate throughout its existence. After modest earlier developments, Ibrahim Adil Shah I (1534–1558) and Ali Adil Shah I (1558–1579) remodelled Bijapur, providing the citadel and city walls, congregational mosque, core royal palaces and major water supply infrastructure. Their successors, Ibrahim Adil Shah II (1580–1627), Mohammed Adil Shah (1627–1657) and Ali Adil Shah II (1657–1672), further adorned Bijapur with palaces, mosques, mausoleum and other structures, considered to be some of the finest examples of Deccan Sultanate and Indo-Islamic Architecture.

Bijapur was caught up in the instability and conflict resulting from the collapse of the Bahmani Empire. Constant warring, both with the Vijayanagar Empire and the other Deccan Sultanates, curtailed the development of state before the Deccan Sultanates allied to achieve victory over Vijayanagar at Talikota in 1565. Bijapur eventually conquered the neighbouring Sultanate of Bidar in 1619. The Portuguese Empire exerted pressure on the major Adil Shahi port of Goa, until it was conquered during the reign of Ibrahim II. The Sultanate was thereafter relatively stable, although it was damaged by the revolt of Shivaji, whose father was Maratha commander in the service of Adil Shah. Shivaji founded an independent Maratha Kingdom which went on to become the Maratha Empire, one of the largest empires in India, just before the British conquered India. The greatest threat to Bijapur's security was, from the late 16th century, the expansion of the Mughal Empire into the Deccan. Although it may be the case that the Mughals destroyed the Adilshahi, it was Shivaji's revolt which weakened the Adilshahi control. Various agreements and treaties imposed Mughal suzerainty on the Adil Shahs, by stages, until Bijapur's formal recognition of Mughal authority in 1636. The demands of their Mughal overlords sapped the Adil Shahs of their wealth until the Mughal conquest of Bijapur in 1686.


Contents

There is no public transportation on Haida Gwaii. Taxis and car rentals are available, and shuttles can be arranged. [14]

The primary transportation links between the Islands and mainland British Columbia are through the Sandspit Airport, the Masset Airport and the BC Ferries terminal at Skidegate.

The westernmost leg of Highway 16 connects Masset and Skidegate on Graham Island, [4] and Skidegate with Prince Rupert on the mainland via regular BC Ferries service by the MV Northern Adventure. Reservations are strongly recommended for the ferry. [14]

There is also regular BC Ferries service between Skidegate and Alliford Bay on Moresby Island. Floatplane services connect to facilities such as the Alliford Bay Water Aerodrome and Masset Water Aerodrome.

There are 120 km (75 mi) of highway on Graham Island. On Moresby, only 20 km (12 mi) of paved road line the coast. [15]

The economy is mixed, including art and natural resources, primarily logging and commercial fishing. Furthermore, service industries and government jobs provide about one-third of the jobs, and tourism has become a more prominent part of the economy in recent years, especially for fishing and tour guides, cycling, camping, and adventure tourism. Aboriginal culture tourism has been enhanced with the establishment of the Haida Heritage Centre at Kaay Ilnygaay.

Public education is provided through School District 50 Haida Gwaii, which operates elementary and secondary schools in Masset, Port Clements, Queen Charlotte, Sandspit, and Skidegate. Higher education programs are offered at the Haida Heritage Centre in partnership with Coast Mountain College, University of Northern British Columbia, and with the Haida Gwaii Higher Education Society. [16]

Publicly funded health services are provided by Northern Health, the regional health authority responsible for the northern half of the province.

Haida Gwaii is served by two hospitals, The Northern Haida Gwaii Hospital and Health Centre in Masset and the Haida Gwaii Hospital in Queen Charlotte which was completed in Fall 2015.

Haida Gwaii has four British Columbia Ambulance stations. They are staffed by approximately 36 casual Emergency Medical Responders (EMR), and 1 Part-Time Community Paramedic based in Masset.

At the time of European contact in 1774, the population was roughly 30,000 people, residing in several towns and including slave populations drawn from other clans of Haida as well as from other nations. It is estimated that ninety percent of the population died during the 1800s from smallpox alone other diseases arrived as well, including typhoid, measles, and syphilis, affecting many more inhabitants. [17] [18] The 1862 Pacific Northwest smallpox epidemic alone killed over 70% of the Haida people.

By 1900, only 350 people remained. Towns were abandoned as people left their homes for the towns of Skidegate and Masset, for cannery towns on the mainland, or for Vancouver Island. Today, around 4,500 [19] people live on the islands. About 70% of the indigenous people (Haida) live in two communities at Skidegate and Old Massett, with a population of about 700 each. In total the Haida make up 45% of the population of the islands.

Anthony Island and the Ninstints Haida village site were made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2006 in the decision, the decline in population wrought by disease was referenced when citing the 'vanished civilization' of the Haida. [20]

Haida Gwaii is considered by archaeologists as an option for a Pacific coastal route taken by the first humans migrating to the Americas from the Bering Strait. [21] At this time Haida Gwaii was likely not an island, but connected to Vancouver Island and the mainland via the now submerged continental shelf. [22] [23]

It is unclear how people arrived on Haida Gwaii, but archaeological sites have established human habitation on the islands as far back as 13,000 years ago. [24] Populations that formerly inhabited Beringia expanded into northern North America after the Last Glacial Maximum, and gave rise to Eskimo-Aleuts and Na-Dené Indians. [25]

Although unsubstantiated, an oral tradition told by the Haida Chief, Albert Edward Edenshaw, says that the Haida came from northern Alaska and travelled to Haida Gwaii in search of new territory. [ citation needed ]

Underwater archaeologists from the University of Victoria are seeking to confirm that stone structures discovered in 2014 on the seabed of Hecate Strait may date back 13,700 or more years ago and be the earliest known signs of human habitation in Canada. [21] Coastal sites of this era are now deep underwater. [26]

Pre-colonial era Edit

The coastal migration hypothesis of the settlement of the Americas suggests that the first North Americans may have been here as the oldest human remains known from Alaska or Canada are from On Your Knees Cave. Anthropologists have found striking parallels between the myths, rituals, and dwelling types of the Koryaks—inhabitants of the Kamchatka Peninsula—and those of the native peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast. At this time the island was twice as large as today. There is strong genetic evidence for these early people having an origin there. [27] [28] The Koryaks were a matrilineal seafaring people hunting whales and other marine mammals. [29] Kujkynnjaku, the Raven, is their primary deity. [30] [31] Most of the Raven myths are similar to those of the Koryak. [31]

The group of people inhabiting these Islands developed a culture made rich by the abundance of the land and sea. These people became the Haida. The Haida are a linguistically-distinct group, and they have a complex class and rank system consisting of two main clans, the Eagles and Ravens. Links and diversity within the Haida Nation were gained through a cross lineal marriage system between the clans. This system was also important for the transfer of wealth within the Nation, with each clan reliant on the other for the building of longhouses, the carving of totem poles and other items of cultural importance.

Noted seafarers, the Haida occupied more than 100 villages throughout the Islands. The Haida were skilled traders, with established trade links with their neighbouring First Nations on the mainland to California. [32] The Haida people regularly took slaves from their wars with other peoples around them. [33]

Colonial era Edit

The archipelago was first sighted by Europeans in 1774 by Juan Pérez, at Langara Island, [34] and in 1778 by James Cook. In 1794, the Haida captured and sank a pair of European vessels, Ino and Resolution, that were seeking to trade for sea otter pelts. [35] Most of the ships' crew were killed. In 1851, the Haida captured the Georgiana, a ship carrying gold prospectors, and held its crew for ransom for nearly two months. [36]

The islands played an important role during the maritime fur trade era of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. During most of that era the trade in the islands was dominated by Americans. [37] The Oregon Treaty of 1846 put an end to American claims to the islands. Following the discovery of gold in the 1850s the British made efforts to exclude whatever American territorial claims might remain. [38]

The Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands was a British colony created by the Colonial Office in response to the increase in American marine trading activity resulting from the gold rush on Moresby Island in 1851. No separate administration or capital for the colony was ever established, as its only officer or appointee was James Douglas, who was simultaneously Governor of Vancouver Island. In essence, the colony was merged with the Vancouver Island colony for administrative purposes from the 1850s to 1866 when the Colony of Vancouver Island was merged with the mainland, which until that point was the separate Colony of British Columbia.

In 1787 Captain George Dixon surveyed the islands. He named the islands the Queen Charlotte Islands after his ship, the Queen Charlotte, which was named after Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of King George III of the United Kingdom.

Another name, "Washington's Isles," was commonly used by American traders, who frequented the islands in the days of the marine fur trade and considered the islands part of the US-claimed Oregon Country. [5] [39] [40] Following the 1846 Oregon Treaty, which established the current international borders and made the islands definitively part of Canada, the "Queen Charlotte Islands" name became official.

On December 11, 2009, the British Columbia government announced that legislation would be introduced in mid-2010 to officially rename the Queen Charlotte Islands to the new name "Haida Gwaii". The legislation received royal assent on June 3, 2010, formalizing the name change. [2] At an official Giving Back the Name ceremony, the name, written on a piece of paper and placed in a bentwood box, was handed to the premier of British Columbia. [4] This name change is officially recognized by all levels of Canadian governments, [41] and also by the United States' National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency name database. [42] The name Haida Gwaii is a modern coinage and was created in the early 1980s as an alternative to the colonial-era name "Queen Charlotte Islands", to recognize the history of the Haida people. [2] "Haida Gwaii" means "islands of the people", [4] while Haida on its own means not only "us" but also "people".

Still in use is the older name Xaadala Gwayee or, in alternative orthography, Xhaaidlagha Gwaayaai, meaning "islands at the boundary of the world". [2] Xhaaydla ("worlds") refers here to the sea and sky. [5]

Research by Simon Fraser University concludes that Haida Gwaii around 55,000 BCE was likely covered with tundra and low meadows that were populated by grazing mammals including caribou and mammoths. Although no mammoth or mastodon fossils were found, the research discovered dung-eating fungi underground in ancient peat by the Cape Ball site in Naikoon Provincial Park on Graham Island. [45] The tundra-like landscape then evolved to a mix of alpine forest and meadows. [45]

The last Pleistocene glaciation receded from the archipelago about 16,000 BCE, about 2,000 years earlier than the rest of the British Columbia Coast's ice age. [ citation needed ] That, and its subsequent isolation from the mainland, encouraged Haida indigenous and environmental activists in the 1970s to use the term "Galápagos of the North", a unique biocultural zone with many endemic plants and animals. The climate of this temperate north hemisphere forested region, like that of much of the British Columbia and Alaskan coast in the area, is moderated by the North Pacific Current, with heavy rainfall and relatively mild temperatures throughout the year.

The islands are home to the Ta'an Forest, with a wide variety of large endemic trees, including the Sitka spruce, western red cedar, yellow cedar (Nootka cypress), shore pine, western hemlock, mountain hemlock, western yew and red alder. The Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands [46] describes plants from the islands.

Soils are variable. Peat is common in poorly drained flats and even on sloping ground in the wetter areas. Where drainage is good, the mature soils are podzols that have classic development (well defined eluvial horizon, Ae under Canadian classification) in undisturbed areas. [47] A history of disturbance, as from logging or windthrow, sees the Ae mixed with other horizons and only patchily visible. [48] Kiidk'yaas (Golden Spruce), a naturally occurring genetic-variant yellow-colour Sitka spruce tree, was near the Yakoun River, the largest on Graham Island. It was a popular tourist attraction until it was illegally cut down in 1997 as a protest against the industrial logging practices.

From the spring of 1996 until November 30, 1997, a popular attraction for tourists to the islands was a male albino white raven. He lived around Port Clements and would commonly be seen taking food handouts from locals and visitors alike. He died after making contact with an electrical transformer. The white raven was preserved by former Port Clements residents, taxidermists Roger Britten Sr. and Jr., and is on display in the Port Clements Historical Society's museum. [49]

The climate is oceanic (Cfb), except near the summit of Mount Moresby where the climate is subpolar oceanic (Cfc). It is very similar to the climate of the west coast of Scotland in terms of average temperatures and total year-round precipitation, but the latitude is lower than the west coast of Scotland it is 52° 39', the same as southern Ireland. [50]

In the relatively shielded areas around Tlell and Sandspit annual rainfall averages from 1,200 millimetres (47 in) to 1,400 millimetres (55 in). [51] Average monthly precipitation is markedly concentrated from October to January, with December the wettest month, averaging about 198 millimetres (7.8 in), most of which is rain, though snow is possible. May through July represent a markedly drier season July, the driest month, averages about 46.4 millimetres (1.83 in) of rain.

Snowfall is generally moderate, averaging from 10 centimetres (4 in) to 70 centimetres (28 in), though at northerly Langara Island, it averages around 100 centimetres (40 in).

Precipitation is typically extremely frequent (especially from autumn to mid-winter), occurring on around two-thirds of all days even in relatively shielded areas, and direct sunlight is scarce, averaging around 3 to 4 hours per day.

Climate data for Sandspit Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 13.9 13.5 13.5 17.9 23.2 28.5 30.9 30.3 27.4 24.5 17.9 15.0 30.8
Record high °C (°F) 12.4
(54.3)
13.4
(56.1)
13.9
(57.0)
18.9
(66.0)
21.7
(71.1)
26.7
(80.1)
27.8
(82.0)
26.7
(80.1)
24.1
(75.4)
20.6
(69.1)
16.3
(61.3)
13.4
(56.1)
27.8
(82.0)
Average high °C (°F) 6.4
(43.5)
6.7
(44.1)
7.8
(46.0)
9.7
(49.5)
12.3
(54.1)
15.0
(59.0)
17.3
(63.1)
18.1
(64.6)
16.1
(61.0)
12.2
(54.0)
8.4
(47.1)
6.7
(44.1)
11.4
(52.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.0
(39.2)
4.1
(39.4)
4.9
(40.8)
6.6
(43.9)
9.4
(48.9)
12.2
(54.0)
14.5
(58.1)
15.2
(59.4)
13.2
(55.8)
9.4
(48.9)
5.7
(42.3)
4.2
(39.6)
8.6
(47.5)
Average low °C (°F) 1.6
(34.9)
1.5
(34.7)
1.9
(35.4)
3.4
(38.1)
6.4
(43.5)
9.3
(48.7)
11.6
(52.9)
12.2
(54.0)
10.2
(50.4)
6.6
(43.9)
3.0
(37.4)
1.7
(35.1)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F) −13.9
(7.0)
−12.3
(9.9)
−12.2
(10.0)
−5.1
(22.8)
−1.1
(30.0)
2.2
(36.0)
5.0
(41.0)
1.9
(35.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
−3.1
(26.4)
−15.5
(4.1)
−12.8
(9.0)
−15.5
(4.1)
Record low wind chill −22.9 −24.1 −22.9 −10.8 −3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 −10.7 −26.0 −20.8 −26.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 190.7
(7.51)
130.8
(5.15)
116.8
(4.60)
97.7
(3.85)
66.4
(2.61)
51.7
(2.04)
48.1
(1.89)
62.2
(2.45)
83.5
(3.29)
169.5
(6.67)
193.8
(7.63)
196.2
(7.72)
1,407.5
(55.41)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 178.4
(7.02)
120.8
(4.76)
112.0
(4.41)
96.6
(3.80)
66.4
(2.61)
51.7
(2.04)
48.2
(1.90)
62.3
(2.45)
83.5
(3.29)
169.5
(6.67)
191.8
(7.55)
190.0
(7.48)
1,371.2
(53.98)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 12.7
(5.0)
9.9
(3.9)
5.2
(2.0)
1.0
(0.4)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
3.0
(1.2)
6.0
(2.4)
37.9
(14.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 23.3 19.2 21.5 19.9 17.7 15.8 14.9 14.8 17.3 22.8 24.0 23.8 234.9
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 21.8 17.8 20.9 19.8 17.7 15.8 14.9 14.9 17.3 22.8 23.3 22.7 229.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 3.6 2.8 2.2 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 2.0 13.0
Average relative humidity (%) 84.4 80.1 77.1 76.4 76.0 77.1 76.1 76.1 76.3 78.5 81.6 84.6 78.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 41.9 77.2 115.9 157.7 194.0 183.8 195.9 187.7 137.9 98.0 58.4 44.8 1,493.1
Percent possible sunshine 16.6 28.0 31.6 37.7 39.5 36.3 38.5 41.0 36.1 29.8 22.3 18.9 31.4
Source: 1981 to 2010 Canadian Climate Normals [51]

2012 controversy around depositing iron in the ocean Edit

In July 2012, entrepreneur Russ George dispersed 100 short tons (91 t) of iron sulphate dust into the Pacific Ocean several hundred miles west of the islands of Haida Gwaii. The Old Massett Village Council was persuaded to finance this geoengineering experiment as a "salmon enhancement project" with $1 million in village funds. [52] The concept was that the formerly iron-deficient waters would produce more phytoplankton that would in turn produce more salmon. George hoped to finance the project by using the carbon sequestration effects of the new plankton as marketable carbon offsets. The project has been plagued by charges of unscientific procedures and recklessness. George contended that 100 tons of iron is negligible compared to what naturally enters the ocean. [53]

Lawyers, environmentalists, and civil society groups are calling the dumping a "blatant violation" of two international moratoriums. [52] [54] George said that the Old Massett Village Council and its lawyers approved the effort and at least seven Canadian agencies were aware of it. [53] In May 2013, the Haida Salmon Restoration Corporation removed George as a director of the company and ended his employment. [55] The 2013 salmon runs increased from 50 million to 226 million fish, [56] but research conducted on 13 major iron-fertilization experiments in the open ocean since 1990 concludes that the method is unproven, and with respect to the Haida Gwaii project, "scientists have seen no evidence that the experiment worked". [57]

Earthquake hazards Edit

The islands are located along the Queen Charlotte Fault, an active transform fault that produces significant earthquakes every 3–30 years. This is the result of the converging of the Pacific and North American Plates along the archipelago's west coast. [58] [59] Major earthquakes have occurred in the Haida Gwaii in 1949 and 2012. Though the region is prone to fair geological activity, there is little infrastructure set up to gather accurate information to warn locals of possible threats. Many residents, notably from First Nations communities, have been critical of the fact that they must rely on information coming from neighboring American states such as Washington or Alaska and from the USGS (United States Geological Survey). Regardless of the inconsistencies, Environment Canada does regularly do field tests across the Pacific coast of British Columbia relating to this matter.

The Cascadia subduction zone does pose some additional earthquake risks, but, most importantly, the subduction zone poses direct tsunami risks to the coastal settlements on the western side of the islands.

Visual arts Edit

The artwork known as Spirit of Haida Gwaii, by Bill Reid, is featured on the reverse of Canadian $20 bills produced between 2004 and 2011. [60] It depicts a Haida chief in a canoe, accompanied by the mythic messengers Raven, Frog and Eagle (the first casting of this sculpture, Spirit of Haida Gwaii: The Black Canoe, is on display in the atrium of the Canadian Embassy in Washington DC, the other, Spirit of Haida Gwaii: the Jade Canoe, is on display in Vancouver Airport). Haida art is also frequently seen on large monumental-sized cedar totem poles and dugout canoes, hand-crafted gold and silver jewellery, and even as cartoons in the form of Haida manga.

Haida language Edit

The Haida language was proposed for classification as part of the Nadene family of languages on the basis of a few similarities with Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit. Many linguists, however, consider the evidence insufficient and continue to regard Haida as a language isolate. All 50 remaining speakers of Haida are over 70 years old. Telus and Gwaii Trust recently completed a project to bring broadband internet to the island via a 150 km (93 mi) microwave relay. This enables interactive research to be carried out on the more than 80 CDs of language, story and spoken history of the people.


Byzantine Military

The land acquired for the Roman provinces of North Africa was taken from the Republic of Carthage at the end of the Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars.

The third war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous Punic Wars and primarily consisted of a single main action, the Battle of Carthage, but resulted in the complete destruction of the city of Carthage, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of thousands of Carthaginians. The Third Punic War ended Carthage's independent existence

The Legio III Augusta was defending
North Africa.

The new provinces included the ancient city of Carthage as well as Hadrumetum, capital of Byzacena, Hippo Regius. The province was established by the Roman Republic in 146 BC.

Rome established its first African colony, Africa Proconsularis or Africa Vetus (Old Africa), governed by a proconsul, in the most fertile part of what was formerly Carthaginian territory. Utica was formed as the administrative capital.

It is certain that from 30 BCE on, the Legio III Augusta was permanently in Africa, although it was not always stationed in the same camp. An inscription from 14 CE informs us that the soldiers had to build a road from Tacapsa to their winter quarters, which may at this stage have been at Theveste.

Although Africa was usually a tranquil part of the Roman Empire, III Augusta saw action in 17-24, when it fought against Tacfarinas, who had organized several Numidian and Mauretanian tribes in an anti-Roman coalition.

The African provinces were amongst the wealthiest regions in the Empire (rivaled only by Egypt, Syria and Italy itself) and as a consequence people from all over the Empire migrated into the Roman Africa Province, most importantly veterans in early retirement who settled in Africa on farming plots promised for their military service. One historian estimated that under Hadrian nearly 1/3 of the eastern Numidia population was descended from Roman veterans

The region remained a part of the Roman Empire until the Germanic migrations of the 5th century.



Click map to enlarge
.
The Roman colonization of Northern Africa
.
Colonization consisted first in a protectorate, then in a direct administration (40-430), divided into four provinces : Africa Proconsularis (Tunisia, East Constantine region, and the Tripolitan region), Numidia (the greater part of the Constantine region), Mauretania Caesariensis (the Algiers and Oran regions) and, from the name of Tingis (Tangier), Mauretania Tingitana.
(crc.org)


The Vandal Kingdom

Roman rule in Africa was interrupted by the invasion of the Vandals from Spain.
The Vandals migrated to Africa in search of safety they had been attacked by a Roman army in 422 and had failed to seal a treaty with them. Advancing eastwards along the coast, the Vandals laid siege to the walled city of Hippo Regius in 430.

After 14 months, hunger and the inevitable diseases were ravaging both the city inhabitants and the Vandals outside the city walls, with the city eventually falling to the Vandals, who made it their first capital.

Peace was made between the Romans and the Vandals in 435 through a treaty giving the Vandals control of coastal Numidia and parts of Mauretania. King Geiseric chose to break the treaty in 439 when he invaded the province of Africa Proconsularis and laid siege to Carthage.

The city was captured without a fight the Vandals entered the city while most of the inhabitants were attending the races at the hippodrome. Genseric made it his capital, and styled himself the King of the Vandals and Alans. Conquering Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, Malta and the Balearic Islands, he built his kingdom into a powerful state.

The Western Empire under Valentinian III secured peace with the Vandals in 442. Under the treaty the Vandals gained Byzacena, Tripolitania, part of Numidia, and confirmed their control of Proconsular Africa.



Eastern Roman Troops

Eastern Roman Africa (533 AD to 709 AD)

Roman rule was restored when the Vandal Kingdom came crashing down in the Invasion of North Africa by Belisarius under the Eastern Emperor Justinian.

After the victories at Ad Decimum and Tricamarum Roman rule in Africa was restored in 533 AD and the Vandal people killed, used as soldiers or enslaved.

The Late Roman administrative system, as established by Diocletian, provided for a clear distinction between civil and military offices, primarily to lessen the possibility of rebellion by over-powerful provincial governors.

Under Justinian I, the process was partially reversed for provinces which were judged to be especially vulnerable or in internal disorder.

Capitalizing upon this precedent and taking it one step further, the emperor Maurice sometime between 585 and 590 created the office of exarch, which combined the supreme civil authority of a praetorian prefect and the military authority of a magister militum, and enjoyed considerable autonomy from Constantinople.

Two exarchates were established, one in Italy, with seat at Ravenna (hence known as the Exarchate of Ravenna), and one in Africa, based at Carthage and including all imperial possessions in the Western Mediterranean. The first African exarch was the patricius Gennadius.

North Africa was an important economic and military addition to the Empire. The provinces provided grain shipments, tax revenue and soldiers.

During the successful revolt of the exarch of Carthage Heraclius in 608, the Amazigh comprised a large portion of the fleet that transported Heraclius to Constantinople.

Roman rule continued until the final conquest by invading Muslim Arab armies in 709AD.


Byzantine Fortress of Ammaedara

Fortress Ammaedara

The Byzantine fortress was built about 550AD on the orders of the Emperor Justinian.

The fortress was one of many defensive strongpoints built by the Romans looking to protect the more valuable coastal zone, cities and agriculture against raids and armies coming from the Sahara Desert or invasion by the Moors.

Originally the Legio III Augusta was stationed in Africa. No trace has been found of their camp. It is suspected that the Fortress Ammaedara may have been built on the site of the legion's camp. The only evidence of this is circumstantial. It comes maily from the headstones of the legion discovered in the military cemetery east of the city.

The fortress is said to be the largest of its kind in North Africa. The original measures were 200 metres by 100 metres, and with walls as high as 10 metres. Parts of this still stand.

Inside the fortress are a chapel and a church.

One of the earliest Roman settlements in North Africa, Haidra in Tunisia contains the remains of the Roman city of Ammaedara. Well off the beaten track, Haidra – also called Hydrah – attracts few tourists and even the archaeological excavations have been few and far between.

Founded in the first century AD, Ammaedara was originally a legionary outpost, used by the Third Legion Augusta during their campaign against the rebellious Numidian leader Tacfarinas – a deserter from the Roman auxiliaries who led his people in an uprising against Rome during the reign of the Emperor Tiberius.

After the defeat of the rebellion, Ammaedara was settled by veterans from the campaign and grew into a thriving Roman city. Indeed, remains of the cemetery of the 3rd legion have been identified on outskirts of the site.

It is unclear as to whether a pre-Roman settlement existed at Haidra. Though the foundations of a Punic temple to Ba'al-Hamon were found near the site, there is little additional evidence of a major settlement.

The Romans ruled the region until the Vandal invasions of the 5th century AD and the ruins of Haidra contain evidence of the period of Vandal rule as well as the subsequent Byzantine period which followed after Justinian’s successful re-conquest.

Today Haïdra contains a number of interesting ruins dating from the various periods in the city’s history. The fortress acted as a defensive stronghold for the newly conquered Byzantine lands.

Dating to around the same period is the Church of Melleus which is in a reasonable state of preservation with a number of surviving columns and interesting inscriptions from the 6th and 7th centuries on the paving stones. Evidence of the Vandal period survives in the form of the Vandal Chapel - dating to the reigns of King Thrasamund and King Hilderic in the early 6th century AD.

The Fall of Ammaedara

There is no record of major military actions involving Ammaedara. This is not surprising considering its purpose was mostly to discourage fairly minor raiding parties coming in from the deserts or the Moorish lands to the west.

But an inland fort looking south and west would have been cut off as Arab armies marched overland from Egypt to invade Carthage in the late 600s. Any troops stationed there could have either been withdrawn to defend Carthage itself or they would have surrendered to the Muslims having been cut off from help.

The ancient Roman city of Ammaedara was abandoned and the area renamed Haidra in Arabic. Even today it remains basically a rural crossroads with only 3,000 people.


Haida

The ancestral home of the Haida people is Haida Gwaii, an archipelago off the coast of British Columbia, Canada. “Haida Gwaii” means “Islands of the People” in the Haida language.

Population: More than 4,500 worldwide Language: Haida, three dialects still spoken

Evelyn (Kujuuhl, left): "I am a weaver in a long family line of weavers. I’ve taught my daughter Carrie Anne."

Carrie Anne (k'iinuwaas, center): "The weaving continues through my daughter Rosalie (right) as well.

Evelyn: "Carrie and I just finished a robe together. It’s a replication of a robe that’s at the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria. It was a unique pattern—Qinga, the One in the Sea. He has supernatural importance to the Haida as canoe people, and also sends a message of the health and the power of the ocean."

—The Vanderhoops, Haida | Master Weavers

Image credit: P. Shannon/InnoNative

Evelyn (Kujuuhl, left): "I am a weaver in a long family line of weavers. I’ve taught my daughter Carrie Anne."

Carrie Anne (k'iinuwaas, center): "The weaving continues through my daughter Rosalie (right) as well.

Evelyn: "Carrie and I just finished a robe together. It’s a replication of a robe that’s at the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria. It was a unique pattern—Qinga, the One in the Sea. He has supernatural importance to the Haida as canoe people, and also sends a message of the health and the power of the ocean."

—The Vanderhoops, Haida | Master Weavers

Image credit: P. Shannon/InnoNative

HAIDA VOICES

"Today I turn 13. It doesn’t really mean much, I guess. It’s just another number. But it’s fun having birthdays. My favorite holidays are my birthday, Christmas and Halloween. Today I’m going to have a sushi birthday party—sushi and tempura. We’ll also have herring roe on kelp. The herring lay their eggs on seaweed, and we cook it in some water and soy sauce and garlic and butter. And it tastes delicious. I love how I can go out here on Haida Gwaii and bring back food. Freshly caught food from the ocean, or deer from the forest, and vegetables that we grew in our garden. It’s very nice to be Haida."

—Trey Rorick, Haida | Elementary school student, cultural interpreter

"I was taught medicines by my mother from since I could remember. She took me in the forest and told me what this plant did and what that plant did. Just last week, somebody in end-stage cancer in Vancouver sent for some of the medicine I make. This is the heavy-duty kind. It was a lifetime of learning before I was ready to delve into cancers. If used wrong, it would kill a person. Myself, I have pancreatic liver cancer. A friend made me medicine that I took for three months. My intuition told me to try an experimental medicine from the white medicine world. I feel good. I am not sick. Four-and-a-half years ago, I was told I had maybe two years. If you believe them, you’re going to die in two years. Say, “No. I am staying as long as I want.” Your mind is very powerful."

— Diane Brown (GwaaGanad), Haida

I’m a mixed-blood person. My mom is British. My dad’s Haida, Irish and Ojibwe. I’m of the Skedans Raven Clan. I was adopted into it two years ago. Generally, people are adopted into a clan as babies. I grew up in the city. I dealt with a lot of racism there and not feeling like I belonged to a culture. When people would ask me, “What clan are you?” Well, I didn’t have a clan. But since being adopted, I feel more connected. I also can dance I can be a part of a dance group and represent the clan. When I went to the first dance practice, I cried. I was sitting with these two younger people. They grew up speaking the language, dancing the language, seeing culture everywhere and I didn’t have that. It’s not anyone’s fault. I just felt like a complete outsider.

Michaela McGuire (Jaad Gudghiljiwah), Haida/British/Irish/Ojibwe | Curatorial intern, photographer, criminology student

"I was named by my uncle to be the next chief in our clan. It’s pretty amazing when you take on that position. You change. Then, it slowly goes into your system, and you realize that change is not the way you think it is. The change becomes more serious, but more subtle, too. You’re not up there ranting and raving for me. You can’t think “for me” anymore. You’re thinking for us and the betterment of, not just your clan, but all of us."

James Hart (Chief 7IDANsuu) Haida | Chief and master artist

"There is a lot of truth in our language. You can’t just say, “Yesterday so-and-so did this.” If you saw it happen, then you’d use a certain past tense. But if somebody told you that this happened, you’d use another. I’ve been learning the language for 12 years. Still I can go from really big highs of speaking somewhat fluently to an incredible low where I can’t say a very simple sentence. Why it’s so hard is not a case of cognitive abilities. There’s a really emotional response to what’s happened to our language, like it’s almost a violent experience. Like why weren’t we all growing up surrounded by our own language that connects us to our culture and our land? Well, generations of children were returning from residential schools only speaking English."

—Jasḵwaan Amanda Bedard, Haida | Educator, language learner, and teacher

I feel like my generation stepped into a privileged space when we were born. In my dad’s generation, every gain they made was a real struggle. Just holding onto self-esteem in that era would have been a challenge. Every law, everything was geared towards dehumanizing Native people. That whole generation grew up either seeing their children stolen from them to go to residential school or being stolen themselves, kidnapped, forced into an environment of assimilation. We didn’t face that. Even more so, by the time we came along, the notion of Haida pride wasn’t even questioned. We emerged into the world knowing that we were great.

—Gwaai Edenshaw (Hluugiitgaa) Haida | Artist, producer, art director

"A while ago, we got a skull back, one of our ancestors. At the time, I worked at the Haida Gwaii Museum. The skull had been removed from a grave long ago. The poor band councilors who brought this ancestor home were just in tears. This has been a struggle, repatriation. We're not allowed to leave the ancestors alone until they've been put to rest. And so I was charged to sit with this ancestor. As I do, I’m also working on the computer. I’m listening to audio files of 40-year-old interviews with Haida people. The interviewer asks, “Do you think that there will be Haidas in 40 years? Do you think Haida culture will still exist?” And so, 40 years later, here I am, sitting with this ancestor that we just brought home to a 52,000-square-foot complex dedicated to Haida culture. And I'm working on digital translations for a firm named White Raven Law to support the Haida Title case to assert our traditional territory. That was a pretty significant experience."


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Haida People: Spirits of the Sea

Ancient Settlements

Haida Gwaii is homeland to the Haida people. Within this tremendously wealthy natural environment, a complex and sophisticated society was developed over thousands and thousands of years.

Traces of Haida ancestors have been found in over 800 recorded archaeological sites on Haida Gwaii. The oldest found to date, reveals an age of approximately 9000 years before present.

New archaeological evidence suggests that the population of Haida Gwaii could have once been as high as 30,000. This is based on the density of settlements found in the southern portion of the islands, as well as the discovery of many sites, now in intertidal or subtidal areas of the shoreline. Sea levels have fluctuated dramatically on Haida Gwaii. Ten thousand years ago, a grassy plain covered large portions of the Hecate Straits which now separate the islands from the mainland. People and animals moved freely through this area and the requirement for water travel was minimal by comparison with today.

Haida Gwaii is homeland to the Haida people. Within this tremendously wealthy natural environment, a complex and sophisticated society was developed over thousands and thousands of years.

Traces of Haida ancestors have been found in over 800 recorded archaeological sites on Haida Gwaii. The oldest found to date, reveals an age of approximately 9000 years before present.

New archaeological evidence suggests that the population of Haida Gwaii could have once been as high as 30,000. This is based on the density of settlements found in the southern portion of the islands, as well as the discovery of many sites, now in intertidal or subtidal areas of the shoreline. Sea levels have fluctuated dramatically on Haida Gwaii. Ten thousand years ago, a grassy plain covered large portions of the Hecate Straits which now separate the islands from the mainland. People and animals moved freely through this area and the requirement for water travel was minimal by comparison with today.

Copper with Bear Crest

Copper with bear crest. U.B.C. Museum of Anthroplogy A7102

U.B.C. Museum of Anthroplogy

A7102
© U.B.C. Museum of Anthroplogy

Ivory Harpoon

Contact with Europeans

It is estimated that there were at least fifty thriving Haida villages throughout Haida Gwaii at the time of European contact (c.1774).

Contact with Europeans, beginning in the late 1700s had a devastating impact on the Haida population. Several epidemics of smallpox ravaged the Haida villages. The most severe of these was recorded in 1862. It is estimated that approximately 95 percent of the Haida population was wiped out by disease. A census conducted by the Hudson&rsquos Bay Company in 1885 counted only 800 Haida. By 1915, the population had dropped further to 588. In spite of this incredible calamity and the further effects of residential schools, Haida culture survived. Today, the Haida population has rebounded to 4000.

It is estimated that there were at least fifty thriving Haida villages throughout Haida Gwaii at the time of European contact (c.1774).

Contact with Europeans, beginning in the late 1700s had a devastating impact on the Haida population. Several epidemics of smallpox ravaged the Haida villages. The most severe of these was recorded in 1862. It is estimated that approximately 95 percent of the Haida population was wiped out by disease. A census conducted by the Hudson&rsquos Bay Company in 1885 counted only 800 Haida. By 1915, the population had dropped further to 588. In spite of this incredible calamity and the further effects of residential schools, Haida culture survived. Today, the Haida population has rebounded to 4000.

Old Massett, 1879

Photo : O.C. Hastings
Royal British Columbia Museum
c. 1879
© Royal British Columbia Museum

Skidegate

Photo : Richard Maynard
Royal British Columbia Museum

© Royal British Columbia Museum

Haida Today

After the smallpox epidemics, the remaining Haida moved to two central villages on the islands, Skidegate, at the south end of Graham Island, and Old Massett in the north, at the mouth of Massett Inlet.

Today these two villages are growing rapidly. Although the economy of the islands has been based in the forest industry and commercial fisheries since the 1930s, declining fish stocks and forest resources are precipitating new approaches to making a living on Haida Gwaii. Tourism, secondary wood manufacturing, and arts and crafts are some examples of growing economic trends on the islands.

Old Massett and Skidegate each has a Village Council which provides local government. In addition, the Council of the Haida Nation was formed to work in a broad political spectrum with the two Village Councils, Clans and individuals. The Council of the Haida Nation&rsquos mandate is to protect and assert Aboriginal Title and the rights of the people. Among its activities are the negotiations toward a Treaty/Land Claims agreement with the Governments of Canada and British Columbia.

After the smallpox epidemics, the remaining Haida moved to two central villages on the islands, Skidegate, at the south end of Graham Island, and Old Massett in the north, at the mouth of Massett Inlet.

Today these two villages are growing rapidly. Although the economy of the islands has been based in the forest industry and commercial fisheries since the 1930s, declining fish stocks and forest resources are precipitating new approaches to making a living on Haida Gwaii. Tourism, secondary wood manufacturing, and arts and crafts are some examples of growing economic trends on the islands.

Old Massett and Skidegate each has a Village Council which provides local government. In addition, the Council of the Haida Nation was formed to work in a broad political spectrum with the two Village Councils, Clans and individuals. The Council of the Haida Nation&rsquos mandate is to protect and assert Aboriginal Title and the rights of the people. Among its activities are the negotiations toward a Treaty/Land Claims agreement with the Governments of Canada and British Columbia.


Haidra - History

The Haida language is spoked by the Haida of Haida Gwaii and by Haida living by the cost of Alaska. The Haida language is kind of like of the NaDene group of the first nations languages but its not really like related to any other language.

The Haida people believed in medicine people who had special powers from supernatural things. Supernatural things are things that live on the earth. They can have the power of the sun, the moon, and the thunders. Haida medicine people with powers from these things would have special clothes. He or she usually wore a dancing blanket. When people were sick he or she would try and cure them. He or she would have a helper to help him or her. The helper would be playing a drum while the medicine person used his powers to cure the person. The Haida believed that when people became sick, it meant they were out of balance. The drumming and singing could help bring people back into balance and they would get actually the totem poles often tells the animal life around them.

Long ago the Haida sometimes went to war vs other Native groups for revenge or to get items of wealth and most of the time slaves. The Haida's slaves were either people caught in wars or were the kids of those who had been caught. The Haida were good warriors because they had great seamanship skills. Haida forts were very well defended against attack. Haida also defended themselves by wearing armour, using wooden helmets and breastplates, and a war coat made from sea lion hides or lots of layers of elkskin. They used bows and arrows and spears to go to war.

ing lamps. In order to get eulachon, the Haida had to travel to the Nass River and trade with the Nisga'a people. There were also many animals the Haida people could hunt. The largest was a grizzly bear. a grizzly bear is also a good prize for the Haida people

in Canada the Haida believe there was a tim e when animals and birds lived on the earth. The Haida believe that these animals are the spirits of the smaller animals and birds that we normally see today. Sometimes what we think of as legends actually developed because of people telling down stories of things that happened long ago


Haida Tribe

Haida Indians, Haida Nation (Xa’ida, ‘people’). The native and popular name for the Indians of the Queen Charlotte Islands., British Columbia, and the south end of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska, comprising the Skittagetan family. By the natives themselves the term may be applied generally to any human being or specifically to one speaking the Haida language. Some authors have improperly restricted the application of the tend to the Queen Charlotte islanders, calling the Alaskan Haida, Kaigani. Several English variants of this word owe their origin to the fact that a suffix usually accompanies it in the native language, making it Hā’dē in one dialect and Haidaga’i in the other.

On the ground of physical characteristics the Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian peoples should be grouped together. Language and social organization indicate still closer affinities between the Haida and Tlingit.

According to their own traditions the oldest Haida towns stood on the east shore, at Naikum and on the broken coast of Moresby island. Later a portion of the people moved to the west coast, and between 150 and 200 years ago a still larger section, the Kaigani, drove the Tlingit from part of Prince of Wales island and settled there. Although it is not impossible that the Queen Charlotte islands were visited by Spaniards during the 17th century, the first certain account of their discovery is that by Ensign Juan Perez, in the corvette Santiago, in 1774. He named the north point of the island, Cabo de Santa Margarita. Bodega and Maurelle visited them the year after. In 1786 La Perouse coasted the shores of the islands, and the following year Capt. Dixon spent more than a month around them, and the islands are named from his vessel, the Queen Charlotte. After that time scores of vessels from England and New England resorted to the coast, principally to trade for furs, in which business the earlier voyagers reaped golden harvest. The most important expeditions, as those of which there is some record, were by Capt. Douglas, Capt. Jos. Ingraham of Boston, Capt. Etienne Marchand in the French ship Solide, and Capt. Geo. Vancouver 1

The advent of whites was, as usual, disastrous to the natives. They were soon stripped of their valuable furs, and, through smallpox and general immorality, they have been reduced in the last 60 years to one-tenth of then former strength. A station of the Hudson Bay Company was long established at Messet, but is now longer remunerative. At Skidegate there are works for the extraction of dogfish oil, which furnish employment to the people during much of the year but in summer all the Indians from this place and Masset go to the mainland to work in salmon canneries. The Masset people also make many canoes of immense cedars to sell to other a coast tribes. The Kaigani still occupy 3 towns, but the population of 2 of them, Kasaan and Klinkwan, is inconsiderable. Neighboring salmon canneries give them work all summer.

Mission stations are maintained by the Methodists at Skidegate, by the Church of England at Masset, and by the Presbyterian at Howkan, Alaska. Nearly all of the people are nominally Christians.

The Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian seem to show greater adaptability to civilization and to display less religious conservatism than many of the tribes farther south. They are generally regarded as superior to them by the white settlers, and they certainly showed themselves such in war and in the arts. Of all peoples of the north west coast the Haida were the best carvers, painters, and canoe and house builders, and they still earn considerable money by selling carved objects of wood and slate to traders and tourists. Standing in the tribe depended more on the possession of property than on ability in war, so that considerable interchange of goods took place and the people became sharp traders. The morals of the people were, however, very loose.

Canoes were to the people of this coast what the horse became to the Plains Indians. They were hollowed out of single logs of cedar, and were sometimes very large. Houses were built of huge cedar beams and planks which were worked out with adzes and wedges made anciently of stone, and put together at great feasts called by the whites by the jargon word “potlatch”. Each house ordinarily had a single carved pole in the middle of the gable enc: presented to the beach. Often the end posts in front were also carved and the whole house front painted. The dead were placed in mortuary houses, in boxes on carved poles, or sometimes in caves. Shamans were placed after death in small houses built on prominent points along shore. Among the beliefs of the Haida reincarnation held a prominent place.

An estimate of the Haida population made, according to Dawson, by John Work, between 1836 and 1841, gives a total of 8,328, embracing 1,735 Kaigani and 6,593 Queen Charlotte islanders. Dawson estimated the number of people on the Queen Charlotte islads. In 1880 as between 1,700 and 2,000. An estimate made for the Canadian Department of Indian Affairs in 1888 2 gives 2,500, but the figures were evidently exaggerated, for when a census of Masset, Skidegate, and Gold Harbor was taken the year after 3 it gave only 637. This, however, left out of consideration the people of New Kloo. In 1894 4 , when these were first added to the list, the entire Haida population was found to be 639. The figures for the year following were 593, but from that time showed an increase and stood at 734 in 1902. In 1904, however, they had suffered a sharp decline to 587. Petroff in 1880-81 reported 788 Kaigani, but this figure may be somewhat too high, since Dall about the same time estimated their number at 300. According to the census of 1890 there were 391, and they are now (1905) estimated at 300. The entire Haida population would thus seem to be about 900.

The Alaskan Haida are called Kaigani. By the Queen Charlotte islanders they are designated Kets-hade (Q!ēts xa’dē), which probably means ‘people of the strait.’ The people of Masset inlet and the nort end of Queen Charlotte islands generally are called by their southern kinsmen Gao-haidagai (Gao xā’-idAga-i), ‘inlet people,’ and those living around the southern point of the group are called Gunghet-haidagai (GA’ ñxet-xā’-idAga-i), from the name of one of the most southerly capes in their territory. All of these latter finally settled in the town afterward known to whites as Ninstints, and hence came to be called Ninstints people.


Bibliography

Beck, Mary Giraudo. Heroes and Heroines: Tlingit-Haida Legend. Anchorage, 1989.

Beck, Mary Giraudo. Shamans and Kushtakes: North Coast Tales of the Supernatural. Anchorage, 1991.

Blackman, Margaret B. During My Time: Florence Edenshaw Davidson, a Haida Woman. Seattle, 1982.

Boas, Franz. Tsimshian Texts. Washington, D.C., 1902.

Boelscher, Marianne. The Curtain Within: Haida Social and Mythical Discourse. Vancouver, 1988.

Bringhurst, Robert. A Story as Sharp as a Knife: The Classical Haida Mythtellers and Their World. Vancouver, 1999.

Dickason, Olive Patricia. Canada's First Nations: A History of Founding Peoples from Earliest Times. Toronto, 1996.

Ghandl. Nine Visits to the Mythword: Ghandl of the Qayahl Llaanas. Translated by Robert Bringhurst. Lincoln, Neb., 2000.

Halpin, Marjorie M. Totem Poles: An Illustrated Guide. Vancouver, 1981.

Henderson, James Youngblood. "Ayukpachi: Empowering Aboriginal Thought." In Reclaiming Indigenous Voice and Vision, edited by Marie Battiste. Vancouver, 2000.

Kenny, Carolyn Bereznak. "Blue Wolf Says Good-bye for the Last Time. " American Behavioral Scientist 45, no. 8 (2002): 1214 – 1222.

Murdock, George Peter. Rank and Potlatch Among the Haida. New Haven, Conn., 1936.

Reid, Bill, and Robert Bringhurst. The Raven Steals the Light. Vancouver, 1984.

Snyder, Gary. He Who Hunted Birds in His Father's Village: The Dimensions of a Haida Myth. Bolinas, Calif., 1979.

Steltzer, Ulli. The Spirit of Haida Gwaii: Bill Reid's Masterpiece. Seattle, 1997.

Swanton, John R. Contributions to the Ethnology of the Haida (1905). New York, 1975.

Swanton, John R. Haida Tests, Masset Dialect (1908). New York, 1975.

Swanton, John R. Haida Songs. Leiden, Netherlands, 1912.

Swanton, John R. Skidegate Haida Myths and Stories. Collected by John R. Swanton edited and translated by John Enrico. Skidegate, Canada, 1995.


Watch the video: दसत कसटरकशन गवरई,वहर खदकम haidra masin