Daniel Villanueva and Stratigraphy

Daniel Villanueva and Stratigraphy

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A graduate of San Francisco State University, Daniel's archaeological expertise is on the pre- and proto-historic periods of San Francisco. His Masters thesis was on the pre-histoy and history of Lake Merced, and the foundation of the Past Preserver walking-tour app: Lake Merced's History. Daniel now offers tours as a tour guide through Yerba Buena Tours. Daniel draws from historical and archaeological research to educate guests on San Francisco's rich cultural heritage, and to offer unique narratives of San Francisco most tourists (or tour guides, for that matter) have never even heard of. While passionate about the past, Daniel is also passionate about applying his skills and knowledges to offer context and solutions to current issues and events, including social activism. Daniel co-authored and is actively pushing a ballot initiate that may one day aid in alleviating a multitude of societal & economic issues currently facing California.

What did your Villanueva ancestors do for a living?

In 1940, Laborer and Seamstress were the top reported jobs for men and women in the US named Villanueva. 34% of Villanueva men worked as a Laborer and 20% of Villanueva women worked as a Seamstress. Some less common occupations for Americans named Villanueva were Farm Labor and Servant .

*We display top occupations by gender to maintain their historical accuracy during times when men and women often performed different jobs.

Top Male Occupations in 1940

Top Female Occupations in 1940

Eight recently drilled core holes (totaling 2200 feet) in the Waimanalo coastal plain of Oahu, Hawaii, have yielded significant stratigraphic and lithologic evidence of a series of eustatic risings and fallings of sea level in the Central Pacific Basin during Pleistocene time. Four major regressions and four major transgressions of the sea have been recognized and correlated with the major glacial and interglacial stages on the basis that each stratigraphically. recognized major regression corresponds to a major glacial stage. The depositional environment that produced this remarkable geologic record was set in a broad, flat, windward island fringe fronting a drowned amphitheater-headed valley. Reef limestones, calcareous clays, lithified calcareous dune sands, littoral sands, and terrigeneous deposits comprise the bulk of the sediments penetrated. The transgressive and regressive stratigraphy corresponds to major eustatic changes in sea level and provides convenient lithologic grouping of four formations: the Kahuku Point (Transgression I, Aftonian?, and Regression II, Kansan?), Kaena (Transgression II, Yarmouth), Bellows Field (Regression III, Illinoian), and Waimanalo (Transgression III, Sangamon). Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the Koolau Volcano of Oahu ceased its activity, was deeply incised by amphitheater-headed valleys, and subsequently drowned and partly filled with sediments during late Tertiary time.

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The origin of taps

Jari Villanueva, who was a bugler at Arlington National Cemetery as a member of the U.S. Air Force Band, has written extensively about taps and worked on and researched a three-year exhibit at ArlingtonCemetery called: "Day is Done . The History of Bugle Calls in The United States With Particular Attention To Taps."

Villlanueva tells USA TODAY that the father-son story first appeared in a 1949 television program for a short-lived "Ripley's Believe it or Not" program. The origin of the tale is recounted in a 1961 book about Ripley called " Ripley: The Modern Day Marco Polo," by Bob Considine.

Considine says of the soap opera nature of the tale, "The denouement of this is a coincidence incredible even by Rip's standards."

According to Vanity Fair, Ripley collapsed while recording the taps program and died several days later.

Villanueva says the tale was often passed along in the 1960s in mimeographed copies — the social media of the era — and apparently in a Dear Abby or Ann Landers column.

According to Villaneuva, historians have traced the true origin of taps to a Union officer, Gen. Daniel Adams Butterfield, who was unhappy with the lights-out call used at the time during the Civil War, feeling it was too formal for day's end.

He turned to a brigade bugler, Oliver Willcox Norton, to play an improvised arrangement of an official bugle call known as Scott Tattoo. That music had been set down in Silas Casey's "Infantry Tactics," which notes various music used to direct troops, and had, in turn, been borrowed from the French.

Villanueva also discusses the topic in an NPR interview that is part of a YouTube post that includes a snippet of the original tune that Butterfield revised.

The revised tune, according to historians, was first played at Harrison's Landing, Virginia, following the Seven Days' Battles in 1862. The fighting was part of the Peninsular Campaign.

One of the first accounts of the origins of taps surfaced in an article in the 1898 issue of The Century magazine, in which a music historian, Gustav Kobbe, credits Butterfield with writing the tune outright.

The article prompted a letter from Norton, the former bugler, who said Butterfield asked him to revise the earlier tune — now known as Scott Tattoo — to shorten some notes and lengthen others, while retaining the melody.

"After getting it to his satisfaction, he directed me to sound that call for Taps thereafter in place of the regulation call," Norton said in a letter to the magazine. "The music was beautiful on that still summer night, and was heard far beyond the limits of our Brigade. The next day I was visited by several buglers from neighboring Brigades, asking for copies of the music which I gladly furnished. I think no general order was issued from army headquarters authorizing the substitution of this for the regulation call, but as each brigade commander exercised his own discretion in such minor matters, the call was gradually taken up through the Army of the Potomac."

At Norton's urging, the editors contacted Butterfield, who in large part confirmed the bugler's story, although he did not specifically recall Norton: "The call of Taps did not seem to be as smooth, melodious and musical as it should be, and I called in some one who could write music, and practiced a change in the call of Taps until I had it suit my ear, and then, as Norton writes, got it to my taste without being able to write music or knowing the technical name of any note, but, simply by ear, arranged it as Norton describes. I did not recall him in connection with it, but his story is substantially correct."

A lengthy article on the topic by Russell H. Booth was published in 1977 in Civil War Times Illustrated that quotes extensively from the 1898 article in The Century. The article credits Butterfield for his role in shaping the tune, but is aimed largely at making it clear Butterfield did not write the tune.

"For the sake of historical accuracy, then let us give General Butterfield credit for having revised a portion of an earlier bugle call into a much better call," Booth writes. "But let us not continue to say that he composed an entirely new call. It makes a good story but it is just not true. The earlier call was in print and in use long before Butterfield ever joined the army."


There are four primary types of sedimentary rocks: clastics, carbonates, evaporites, and chemical.

    are composed of particles derived from the weathering and erosion of precursor rocks and consist primarily of fragmental material. Clastic rocks are classified according to their predominant grain size and their composition. In the past, the term "Clastic Sedimentary Rocks" were used to describe silica-rich clastic sedimentary rocks, however there have been cases of clastic carbonate rocks. The more appropriate term is siliciclastic sedimentary rocks.
    • Organic sedimentary rocks are important deposits formed from the accumulation of biological detritus, and form coal and oil shale deposits, and are typically found within basins of clastic sedimentary rocks

    Sedimentary rocks provide a multitude of products which modern and ancient society has come to utilise.

      : marble, although a metamorphosedlimestone, is an example of the use of sedimentary rocks in the pursuit of aesthetics and art
    • Architectural uses: stone derived from sedimentary rocks is used for dimension stone and in architecture, notably slate, a meta-shale, for roofing, sandstone for load-bearing buttresses and industrial materials: clay for pottery and ceramics including bricks cement and lime derived from limestone. : sedimentary rocks host large deposits of SEDEX ore deposits of lead-zinc-silver, large deposits of copper, deposits of gold, tungsten, Uranium, and many other precious minerals, gemstones and industrial minerals including heavy mineral sands ore deposits
    • Energy: petroleum geology relies on the capacity of sedimentary rocks to generate deposits of petroleumoils. Coal and oil shale are found in sedimentary rocks. A large proportion of the world's uranium energy resources are hosted within sedimentary successions. : sedimentary rocks contain a large proportion of the Earth's groundwater aquifers. Our understanding of the extent of these aquifers and how much water can be withdrawn from them depends critically on our knowledge of the rocks that hold them (the reservoir).

    The aim of sedimentology, studying sediments, is to derive information on the depositional conditions which acted to deposit the rock unit, and the relation of the individual rock units in a basin into a coherent understanding of the evolution of the sedimentary sequences and basins, and thus, the Earth's geological history as a whole.

    The scientific basis of this is the principle of uniformitarianism, which states that the sediments within ancient sedimentary rocks were deposited in the same way as sediments which are being deposited at the Earth's surface today.

    Sedimentological conditions are recorded within the sediments as they are laid down the form of the sediments at present reflects the events of the past and all events which affect the sediments, from the source of the sedimentary material to the stresses enacted upon them after diagenesis are available for study.

    The principle of superposition is critical to the interpretation of sedimentary sequences, and in older metamorphic terrains or fold and thrust belts where sediments are often intensely folded or deformed, recognising younging indicators or graded bedding is critical to interpretation of the sedimentary section and often the deformation and metamorphic structure of the region.

    Folding in sediments is analysed with the principle of original horizontality, which states that sediments are deposited at their angle of repose which, for most types of sediment, is essentially horizontal. Thus, when the younging direction is known, the rocks can be "unfolded" and interpreted according to the contained sedimentary information.

    The principle of lateral continuity states that layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions unless obstructed by a physical object or topography.

    The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that whatever cuts across or intrudes into the layers of strata is younger than the layers of strata.

    The methods employed by sedimentologists to gather data and evidence on the nature and depositional conditions of sedimentary rocks include

    • Measuring and describing the outcrop and distribution of the rock unit
      • Describing the rock formation, a formal process of documenting thickness, lithology, outcrop, distribution, contact relationships to other formations
      • Mapping the distribution of the rock unit, or units
      • Describes the progression of rock units within a basin
        and petrography particularly measurement of texture, grain size, grain shape (sphericity, rounding, etc.), sorting and composition of the sediment
      • , including use of radiometric dating, to determine the age of the rock, and its affinity to source regions

      The longstanding understanding of how some mudstones form has been challenged by geologists at Indiana University (Bloomington) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The research, which appears in the December 14th, 2007, edition of Science, counters the prevailing view of geologists that mud only settles when water is slow-moving or still, instead showing that "muds will accumulate even when currents move swiftly." The research shows that some mudstones may have formed in fast-moving waters: "Mudstones can be deposited under more energetic conditions than widely assumed, requiring a reappraisal of many geologic records." [6]

      Macquaker and Bohacs, in reviewing the research of Schieber et al., state that "these results call for critical reappraisal of all mudstones previously interpreted as having been continuously deposited under still waters. Such rocks are widely used to infer past climates, ocean conditions, and orbital variations." [7]

      Considerable recent research into mudstones has been driven by the recent effort to commercially produce hydrocarbons from them, in both the Shale gas and Tight Oil (or Light Tight Oil) plays. [8]

      Sedimentation and Stratigraphy

      Sedimentary geology utilizes sedimentary rocks to investigate the processes that shaped the surface of the early Earth to the history of how those processes have interacted to control the Earth system. In addition to traditional techniques like facies analysis and provenance analysis, cutting-edge application of techniques ranging from stable isotope geochemistry to detrital zircon geochronology are leading rapid developments in what can be learned from the sedimentary record.

      Research interests

      physical and chemical sedimentation Earth history

      IU builds on traditional strengths in physical sedimentology and basin analysis to define new frontiers in tectonics, paleoclimate and sedimentary processes. Training in sedimentary geology provides a myriad of employment options, ranging from academia to government, to careers in the energy industry.

      More than half of the faculty of the department relate to sedimentary petrology directly or in an interdisciplinary way.

      Stratigraphy and Depositional Environments of the Upper Pleistocene Chemehuevi Formation Along the Lower Colorado River

      The Chemehuevi Formation forms a conspicuous, widespread, and correlative set of nonmarine sediments lining the valleys of the Colorado River and several of its larger tributaries in the Basin and Range geologic province. These sediments have been examined by geologists since J. S. Newberry visited the region in 1857 and are widely cited in the geologic literature however their origin remains unresolved and their stratigraphic context has been confused by inconsistent nomenclature and by conflicting interpretations of their origin. This is one of the most prominent stratigraphic units along the river below the Grand Canyon, and the formation records an important event or set of events in the history of the Colorado River. Here we summarize what is known about these deposits throughout their range, present new stratigraphic, sedimentologic, topographic, and tephrochronologic data, and formally define them as a lithostratigraphic unit.

      The Chemehuevi Formation consists primarily of a bluff-forming mud facies, consisting of gypsum-bearing, horizontally bedded sand, silt, and clay, and a slope-forming sand facies containing poorly bedded, well sorted, quartz rich sand and scattered gravel. The sedimentary characteristics and fossil assemblages of the two facies types suggest that they were deposited in flood plain and channel environments, respectively. In addition to these two primary facies, we identify three other mappable facies in the formation: a thick-bedded rhythmite facies, now drowned by Lake Mead a valley-margin facies containing abundant locally derived sediment and several tributary facies consisting of mixed fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower parts of major tributary valleys. Observations from the subsurface and at outcrops near the elevation of the modern flood plain suggest that the formation also contains a regional basal gravel member.

      Surveys of numerous outcrops using high-precision GPS demonstrate that although the sand facies commonly overlies the mud facies where the two are found together, contacts between the two occur over a range in elevation, and as a consequence, the sand and mud facies are similarly distributed both horizontally and vertically throughout the valley. Collectively, the outcrops of the formation lie below a smooth elevation envelope that slopes 50 percent more steeply than the historic (pre-Hoover Dam) valley, from nearly 150 m above the historic flood plain near the mouth of the Grand Canyon to less than 30 m above the flood plain at the head of the flood plain near Yuma, Arizona. The steepness of the valley at the peak of aggradation probably represents a depositional slope.

      Layers of fine grained volcanic tephra have been found below and within the Chemehuevi Formation at five widely separated sites, one of which is now submerged beneath Lake Mead. Major element geochemistry of glass shards from the four accessible tephra sites were analyzed. Three of the sampled tephra layers are interbedded within the Chemehuevi Formation, and a fourth tephra conformably underlies the formation. The three interbedded tephra layers are similar enough to one another that they are probably from the same eruptive unit, hereafter referred to as the Monkey Rock tephra bed. The other sample, which locally underlies the formation, is similar enough to the Monkey Rock tephra bed to suggest it is from the same volcanic source area however, it may not be from the same eruption, and thus may not be the same age. On the basis of the stratigraphic contexts of chemically similar tephra layers found elsewhere in the Basin and Range, we suspect that the source area is the Mammoth Mountain dome complex in Long Valley, east-central California. Two samples of proximal Mammoth Mountain pumice were analyzed and produced geochemical signatures similar to all four of the Chemehuevi Formation tephra, supporting Mammoth Mountain as a possible source area. The Mammoth Mountain volcanic center produced eruptions between about 111±2 and 57±2 ka and was most active in the later part of this time interval, during Marine Oxygen Isotope (MOI) stage 4 (between 74 and 59 ka ago). Chemically similar tephra in cores from Owens Lake and Walker Lake are approximately 70 and 74 ky old, based on age models of those cores. Other lines of stratigraphic evidence from nine tephra-containing sections in the Basin and Range are also consistent with an age assignment for the Monkey Rock tephra of

      72 ky, near the beginning of MOI stage 4.

      We propose to designate the Chemehuevi Formation as a formal lithostratigraphic unit, and propose as the type section a well exposed outcrop near the ranger station at Katherine Landing, Arizona, in the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. This exposure shows the two dominant facies, an example of one of the four known tephra layers, and interbedded lenses of locally derived gravel. In the type section, as in many of the other examples of the formation, the sand facies overlies the mud facies on a conspicuous, abrupt erosional surface however, nearby is a contiguous section demonstrating that the mud and sand facies interfinger. In addition to the type section, measured reference sections compiled here illustrate other important lithologic and stratigraphic features of the formation.

      Our preferred interpretation of the Chemehuevi Formation is that it contains the remnants of deposits formed during a single major episode of fluvial aggradation, during which the Colorado River filled its valley with a great volume of dominantly sand-size sediment. This would reflect an increase in the supply of sand-size sediment, and(or) a reduction in transport capacity below the mouth of Grand Canyon. The most likely cause for the aggradation is an extraordinary increase in sand supply, likely due to widespread climatic change. However, other explanations have not been ruled out. Other aggradation events predated the Chemehuevi Formation, and some smaller events may have postdated the formation. However, the Chemehuevi Formation contains the remnants of the most recent large magnitude (>100 m) aggradation of the Colorado River.

      For additional information:
      Contact Information, Western Region Geology and Geophysics Science Center&mdashMenlo Park
      U.S. Geological Survey
      345 Middlefield Road, MS-973
      Menlo Park, CA 94025-3591

      This report is presented in Portable Document Format (PDF) the latest version of Adobe Reader or similar software is required to view it. Download the latest version of Adobe Reader, free of charge.

      Suggested citation:

      Malmon, D.V., Howard, K.A., House, P.K., Lundstrom, S.C., Pearthree, P.A., Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M., Wan, Elmira, and Wahl, D.B., 2011, Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the upper Pleistocene Chemehuevi Formation along the lower Colorado River: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1786, 95 p., available at https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1786/.


      Introduction and previous work

      Distribution of the Chemehuevi Formation

      Members and marker horizons

      Tephra correlations and age constraints

      Interpretations and discussion

      Designation as a lithostratigraphic unit

      U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
      URL: https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/1786/
      Page Contact Information: Contact USGS
      Page Last Modified: Thursday, December 01, 2016, 04:23:17 PM

      Texas man convicted of double murder explored in new doc: ‘I just could not see this evil, angry person’

      It was 2007 when John Mimbela, a Texas-based contractor, decided to help a man he believed was innocent of a double murder.

      He had just married the former sister-in-law of the imprisoned man, Daniel Villegas, and adopted his three nieces.

      "When we would take our daughters to visit their grandparents, which are Daniel’s parents, I would hear them talk about a son who was in prison but was innocent," Mimbela told Fox News. "Yet he had a life sentence. I didn’t pay a whole bunch of attention at first. I just figured, of course, no one wants to accept the fact that their son was in prison for murder.”

      Daniel Villegas claimed police "harassed" him into giving a false confession. — ID

      “But one day… they were just very torn up,” Mimbela continued. “They were just crying. When I asked what’s wrong, they said, ‘Our son is never getting out of prison.’ I felt so bad. I thought, let me see what I can do. I started looking into the case and I became convinced that there was a very big possibility that Daniel was innocent.”

      The shocking case of Villegas, a man who at age 16, under what he claimed was intense police pressure, took responsibility for a double homicide in the city of El Paso, is the subject of a new Investigation Discovery (ID) documentary titled “A Fatal Confession: Keith Morrison Investigates.”

      The investigative journalist explores how Villegas became imprisoned at age 18, sparking a fight for justice. It features interviews with Villegas and his family, as well as investigators associated with the case.

      Late one night in 1993, four young men were walking home from a party when a car pulled up beside them and someone from the passenger side began shooting. Robert England, 19, was shot once in the head and died in the street. Armando Lazo, 17, was shot in the abdomen and thigh. He made it about 100 yards to a nearby home, where his body was found. The other two, Jesse Hernandez and Juan Medina, survived but could not identify the shooter.

      A young Daniel Villegas. — ID

      According to The National Registry of Exonerations, Detective Alfonso Marquez of the El Paso Police Department brought in David Rangel, 17, for questioning. Rangel said that others had wrongly implicated him and that, if he didn’t come clean, he would spend the rest of his life in prison. Rangel told Marquez that his cousin, Villegas, had said he had shot Lazo and England with a sawed-off shotgun — but added that he was sure the teen was joking, as he often boasted about things that he hadn’t actually done.

      Villegas was later arrested and taken to Juvenile Investigative Services, where he was handcuffed to a chair, questioned and threatened. A terrified Villegas agreed to give a statement. He recanted his confession a few hours after signing his statement. Villegas told a juvenile probation officer that he was innocent and only confessed because the police “were harassing him.” Villegas was charged with capital murder.

      Mimbela, who has no experience in criminal law, initially questioned Villegas’ innocence, but after reviewing court documents he realized something was very wrong.

      John Mimbela participated in a new Investigation Discovery documentary about the case of Daniel Villegas. (ID)

      “When I started looking into the paperwork, I saw that there was no physical evidence whatsoever that connected Daniel to this crime and that the only thing out there was a confession that did not match anything to what the police report said happened or any of the witnesses," said Mimbela. "I figured there had to be a mistake. Maybe they overlooked something and would want to correct it — do the right thing and give Daniel a fair trial.”

      Villegas’ first trial, in 1994, had ended in a mistrial. He was retried and convicted the following year. Villegas was sentenced to life in prison.

      Mimbela said he hired a private investigator to further help him dig into what happened that tragic night. Mimbela said the facts showed that Villegas did not commit the murders. Determined to help, he called the media to present his findings, set up billboards to raise awareness and supported rallies. He also helped raise funds for Villegas’ legal defense. According to the Texas Tribune, Mimbela also amassed the help of expert witnesses, exonerated individuals, lawyers, investigators and the innocence group Proclaim Justice to further prove Villegas was innocent.

      “Daniel tells me they had him convinced that the only way out of that interrogation was if they told them what they wanted to hear,” said Mimbela. “They would let him go. If not, he was going to get the ultimate punishment, the death penalty. He didn’t have any other option but to confess. What these people think in these interrogation rooms is, ‘I’m going to tell them what they want to hear now, but I know that later on, they’re going to investigate everything and they’re going to see that this is not true.’ These people don’t know about the consequences. They think that it’s going to get straightened out.”

      The Texas Tribune shared Mimbela and supporters pointed out that another shooting had occurred right before the slayings and the same type of weapon was used. They alleged the same killer might have been involved in both crimes. Joe Spencer, Villegas' lead attorney, alleged police used physical, mental and emotional abuse to get a confession out of the teen despite lack of forensic and physical evidence, as well as eyewitness testimony.

      The district attorney told the outlet the investigation focused on Villegas because he did tell his cousin he committed the murders despite claiming he was merely joking.

      John Mimbela said he later believed Daniel Villegas was innocent. — ID

      “My wife had grown up with Daniel,” said Mimbela. “My wife always said he was a jolly guy, always a kidder… When I went to visit Daniel, he just didn’t strike me as a killer. He was a joker… I just could not see this evil, angry person. He did not strike me as somebody who could commit a crime like this.”

      An appeals court in 2013 overturned the conviction and a trial was ordered. In 2018, after serving 18 years in prison, Villegas was found not guilty in his third and final capital murder trial. Villegas, 41, collapsed in tears after hearing the verdict in an El Paso courtroom.

      “My God, that moment is very hard to describe,” said Mimbela. “… We were sitting down. Had we been standing like Daniel, we would have also had the same reaction — knees trembling, falling to our feet. I never prayed so hard in my life.”

      The El Paso Times reported a jury of seven women and five men deliberated for about nine hours before reaching their decision. After the verdict, Villegas and his family went to pray at St. Mark Catholic Church. Prosecutor James Montoya told the outlet that despite the verdict, the El Paso County District Attorney’s Office maintains that Villegas is responsible for the two deaths. He added there are no other suspects and “no one else to investigate.” Prosecutors cannot appeal the acquittal.

      U.S. Postal Worker And Four Others Arrested For Shipping Heroin And Fentanyl Through The Mail

      Audrey Strauss, the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Peter C. Fitzhugh, Special Agent in Charge of Homeland Security Investigations (“HSI”) in New York, Matthew Modafferi, Special Agent in Charge of the Northeast Area Field Office of the U.S. Postal Service, Officer of Inspector General (“USPS-OIG”), and Philip R. Bartlett, Inspector-in-Charge of the New York Office of the U.S. Postal Inspection Service (“USPIS”), announced the unsealing of an indictment today charging LUIS GAMEZ, HUGO RICHARD VILLANUEVA TORRES, DANIEL ORTIZ, JOSE LUIS MARTINEZ ROSARIO and JAYSON COLON with participating in a conspiracy to distribute heroin and fentanyl in connection with a scheme to transport those narcotics through the U.S. mail. GAMEZ was arrested on Sunday evening in California and was presented yesterday before a federal magistrate judge in the Central District of California. VILLANUEVA, ORTIZ, MARTINEZ, and COLON were arrested yesterday in New Jersey and were presented before U.S. Magistrate Judge Barbara C. Moses that same day. The case is assigned to United States District Judge Paul A. Engelmayer.

      Manhattan U.S. Attorney Audrey Strauss said: “As alleged, the defendants are charged with trafficking large quantities of fentanyl and heroin. We thank our partners at HSI and USPS-OIG for their outstanding work in stopping the shipment of narcotics through the U.S. mail.”

      HSI Special Agent in Charge Peter C. Fitzhugh said: “These defendants allegedly operated a cross-country drug distribution network which placed profits above all else, including the safety of our communities. During this week's operation, we arrested 5 members of this drug trafficking organization. More importantly, we seized over 6 kilograms of fentanyl and heroin, which contain numerous fatal doses of these dangerous drugs. Working with our law enforcement partners at the U.S. Postal Inspection Service, the U.S. Postal OIG and the United States Attorney’s Office, SDNY, HSI will continue to protect the public from those who would exploit our communities for their own financial and personal gain.”

      USPS-OIG Special Agent in Charge Matthew Modafferi said: “The Special Agents of the U.S. Postal Service Office of Inspector General are dedicated to maintaining the integrity of the Postal Service and its personnel. When a Postal Service employee allegedly decides to break the public’s trust and participates in a scheme to transport illegal narcotics through the U.S. Mail, USPS OIG Special Agents will tirelessly work to bring those responsible to justice. The USPS OIG is thankful for the great relationships we have developed with our law enforcement partners and with the U.S. Attorney’s Office to combat the shipment of illegal narcotics through the U.S. Mail.”

      USPIS Inspector-in-Charge Philip R. Bartlett said: “Using the U.S. Mail to facilitate the transportation of deadly fentanyl was one of many mistakes allegedly made by these subjects. Postal Inspectors and their law enforcement partners will arrest and bring to justice anyone who breaks the sanctity of the trust placed in the U.S. Mail, no matter where they are found.”

      As alleged in the Indictment unsealed yesterday in Manhattan federal court and in other court papers and proceedings[1]:

      From at least in or about May 2020 up to and including in or about February 2021, LUIS GAMEZ, HUGO RICHARD VILLANUEVA TORRES, DANIEL ORTIZ, JOSE LUIS MARTINEZ ROSARIO, and JAYSON COLON participated in a conspiracy to distribute kilograms of fentanyl and heroin. The conspirators transported kilogram-quantities of fentanyl and heroin, as well as narcotics proceeds, in packages shipped through the United States mail with the assistance of ORTIZ, an employee of the U.S. Postal Service.

      GAMEZ, 30, of Riverside, California, VILLANUEVA, 29, of Belleville, New Jersey, ORTIZ, 41, of Harrison, New Jersey, MARTINEZ, 44, of Harrison, New Jersey, and COLON, 42, of Kearny, New Jersey, are each charged with one count of conspiracy to distribute 400 grams or more of fentanyl and one kilogram or more of heroin. That charge carries a mandatory minimum sentence of ten years in prison and a maximum sentence of life in prison.

      Ms. Strauss praised the outstanding investigative work of HSI-New York, USPS-OIG, and the United States Postal Inspection Service, and thanked HSI-Newark and HSI-Riverside for their assistance.

      This case is being handled by the Office’s Narcotics Unit. Assistant United States Attorneys Kedar Bhatia and Andrew A. Rohrbach are in charge of the prosecution.

      [1] As the introductory phrase signifies, the entirety of the text of the Indictment, and the description set forth herein, constitute only allegations, and every fact described should be treated as an allegation.

      The History of Taps

      Of all the military bugle calls, none is so easily recognized or more apt to render emotion than the call Taps. The melody is both eloquent and haunting and the history of its origin is interesting and somewhat clouded in controversy. In the British Army, a similar call known as Last Post has been sounded over soldiers' graves since 1885, but the use of Taps is unique with the United States military, since the call is sounded at funerals, wreath-laying and memorial services.

      Up to the Civil War, the infantry call for Lights Out was that set down in Silas Casey's (1801-1882) Tactics, which had been borrowed from the French. The music for Taps was changed by Union General Daniel Butterfield for his Brigade (Third Brigade, First Division, Fifth Army Corps, Army of the Potomac) in July of 1862.

      Daniel Adams Butterfield (31 October 1831-17 July 1901) was born in Utica, New York and graduated from Union College at Schenectady. He was the eastern superintendent of the American Express Company in New York when the Civil War broke out. Despite his lack of military experience, he rose quickly in rank. A Colonel in the 12th Regiment of the New York State Militia, he was promoted to Brigadier General and given command of a brigade of the V Corps of the Army of the Potomac. The 12th served in the Shenandoah Valley during the the Bull Run Campaign. During the Peninsular campaign, Butterfield served prominently when, during the Battle of Gaines Mill, despite an injury, he seized the colors of the 3rd Pennsylvania and rallied the regiment at a critical time in the battle. Years later, he was awarded the Medal of Honor for that act of heroism.

      As the story goes, General Butterfield was not pleased with the call for Lights Out, feeling that the call was too formal to signal the day's end. With the help of the brigade bugler, Oliver Wilcox Norton, Butterfield wrote Taps to honor his men while in camp at Harrison's Landing, Virginia, following the Seven Day's battle. These battles took place during the Peninsular Campaign of 1862. The call, sounded that night in July, 1862, soon spread to other units of the Union Army and was even used by the Confederates. Taps was made an official bugle call after the war.

      The highly romantic account of how Butterfield composed the call surfaced in 1898 following a magazine article written that summer. The August, 1898 issue of Century Magazine contained an article called The Trumpet in Camp and Battle, by Gustav Kobbe, a music historian and critic. He was writing about the origin of bugle calls in the Civil War and in reference to Taps, wrote:

      In speaking of our trumpet calls I purposely omitted one with which it seemed most appropriate to close this article, for it is the call which closes the soldier's day. . . . Lights Out. I have not been able to trace this call to any other service. If it seems probable, it was originated with Major Seymour, he has given our army the most beautiful of all trumpet-calls.

      Kobbe was using as an authority, the Army Drill Manual on Infantry Tactics prepared by Major General Emory Upton in 1867 (revised in 1874). The bugle calls in the manual were compiled by Major (later, General) Truman Seymour of the 5th U.S. Artillery. Taps was called Lights Out in these manuals since it was to replace the Lights Out disliked by Butterfield. The title of the call was not changed until later, although other manuals started calling it Taps because most soldiers knew it by that name. Since Seymour was responsible for the music in the Army manual, Kobbe assumed that he had written the call. Kobbe's inability to find the origin of Light's Out (Taps) prompted a letter from Oliver W. Norton of Chicago, who claimed he knew how the call came about and that he was the first to perform it. Norton wrote:

      I was much interested in reading the article by Mr. Gustav Kobbe, on the Trumpet and Bugle Calls, in the August Century. Mr. Kobbe says that he has been unable to trace the origin of the call now used for Taps, or the Go to Sleep , as it is generally called by the soldiers. As I am unable to give the origin of this call, I think the following statement may be of interest to Mr. Kobbe and your readers.. .. During the early part of the Civil War I was bugler at the Headquarters of Butterfield's Brigade, Meroll's Division, Fitz-John Porter's Corp, Army of the Potomac. Up to July, 1862, the Infantry call for Taps was that set down in Casey s Tactics, which Mr. Kobbe says was borrowed from the French. One day, soon after the seven days battles on the Peninsular, when the Army of the Potomac was lying in camp at Harrison's Landing, General Daniel Butterfield, then commanding our Brigade, sent for me, and showing me some notes on a staff written in pencil on the back of an envelope, asked me to sound them on my bugle. I did this several times, playing the music as written. He changed it somewhat, lengthening some notes and shortening others, but retaining the melody as he first gave it to me. After getting it to his satisfaction, he directed me to sound that call for Taps thereafter in place of the regulation call. The music was beautiful on that still summer night, and was heard far beyond the limits of our Brigade. The next day I was visited by several buglers from neighboring Brigades, asking for copies of the music which I gladly furnished. I think no general order was issued from army headquarters authorizing the substitution of this for the regulation call, but as each brigade commander exercised his own discretion in such minor matters, the call was gradually taken up through the Army of the Potomac. I have been told that it was carried to the Western Armies by the 11th and 12th Corps, when they went to Chattanooga in the fall of 1863, and rapidly made it s way through those armies. I did not presume to question General Butterfield at the time, but from the manner in which the call was given to me, I have no doubt he composed it in his tent at Harrison's Landing. I think General Butterfield is living at Cold Spring, New York. If you think the matter of sufficient interest, and care to write him on the subject, I have no doubt he will confirm my statement. -Oliver W. Norton

      The editor did write to Butterfield as suggested by Norton. In answer to the inquiry from the editor of the Century, General Butterfield, writing from Gragside, Cold Spring, under the date of August 31, 1898 wrote:

      I recall, in my dim memory, the substantial truth of the statement made by Norton, of the 83rd Pa., about bugle calls. His letter gives the impression that I personally wrote the notes for the call. The facts are, that at the time I could sound calls on the bugle as a necessary part of military knowledge and instruction for an officer commanding a regiment or brigade. I had acquired this as a regimental commander. I had composed a call for my brigade, to precede any calls, indicating that such were calls, or orders, for my brigade alone. This was of very great use and effect on the march and in battle. It enabled me to cause my whole command, at times, in march, covering over a mile on the road, all to halt instantly, and lie down, and all arise and start at the same moment to forward in line of battle, simultaneously, in action and charge etc. It saves fatigue. The men rather liked their call, and began to sing my name to it. It was three notes and a catch. I can not write a note of music, but have gotten my wife to write it from my whistling it to her, and enclose it. The men would sing , "Dan, Dan, Dan, Butterfield, Butterfield" to the notes when a call came. Later, in battle, or in some trying circumstances or an advance of difficulties, they sometimes sang, "Damn, Damn, Damn, Butterfield, Butterfield".

      The call of Taps did not seem to be as smooth, melodious and musical as it should be, and I called in some one who could write music, and practiced a change in the call of Taps until I had it suit my ear, and then, as Norton writes, got it to my taste without being able to write music or knowing the technical name of any note, but, simply by ear, arranged it as Norton describes. I did not recall him in connection with it, but his story is substantially correct. Will you do me the favor to send Norton a copy of this letter by your typewriter? I have none. -Daniel Butterfield

      On the surface, this seems to be the true history of the origin of Taps. Indeed, the many articles written about Taps cite this story as the beginning of Butterfield's association with the call. Certainly, Butterfield never went out of his way to claim credit for its composition and it wasn't until the Century article that the origin came to light.

      There are however, significant differences in Butterfield's and Norton's stories. Norton says that the music given to him by Butterfield that night was written down on an envelope while Butterfield wrote that he could not read or write music! Also Butterfield's words seem to suggest that he was not composing a melody in Norton's presence, but actually arranging or revising an existing one. As commander of a brigade, he knew of the bugle calls needed to relay troop commands. All officers of the time were required to know the calls and were expected to be able to play the bugle. Butterfield was no different-he could play the bugle but could not read music. As a colonel of the 12th N.Y. Regiment, before the war, he had ordered his men to be thoroughly familiar with calls and drills.

      What could account for the variation in stories? My research shows that Butterfield did not compose Taps but actually revised an earlier bugle call. This sounds blasphemous to many, but the fact is that Taps existed in an early version of the call Tattoo. As a signal for end of the day, armies have used Tattoo to signal troops to prepare them for bedtime roll call. The call was used to notify the soldiers to cease the evening's drinking and return to their garrisons. It was sounded an hour before the final call of the day to extinguish all fires and lights. This early version is found in three manuals the Winfield Scott (1786 -1866 ) manual of 1835, the Samuel Cooper (1798-1876) manual of 1836 and the William Gilham (1819?-1872) manual of 1861. This call referred to as the Scott Tattoo was in use from 1835-1860. A second version of Tattoo came into use just before the Civil War and was in use throughout the war replacing the Scott Tattoo.

      The fact that Norton says that Butterfield composed Taps cannot be questioned. He was relaying the facts as he remembered them. His conclusion that Butterfield wrote Taps can be explained by the presence of the second Tattoo. It was most likely that the second Tattoo, followed by Extinguish Lights (the first eight measures of today's Tattoo), was sounded by Norton during the course of the war.

      It seems possible that these two calls were sounded to end the soldier's day on both sides during the war. It must therefore be evident that Norton did not know the early Tattoo or he would have immediately recognized it that evening in Butterfield's tent. If you review the events of that evening, Norton came into Butterfield's tent and played notes that were already written down on an envelope. Then Butterfield changed it somewhat, lengthening some notes and shortening others, but retaining the melody as he first gave it. If you compare that statement while looking at the present day Taps, you will see that this is exactly what happened to turn the early (Scott) Tattoo in Taps. Butterfield as stated above, was a Colonel before the War and in General Order No. 1 issued by him on December 7, 1859 had the order: The Officers and non-commissioned Officers are expected to be thoroughly familiar with the first thirty pages, Vol. 1, Scott's Tactics, and ready to answer any questions in regard to the same previous to the drill above ordered Scott's Tactics include the bugle calls that Butterfield must have known and used.

      If Butterfield was using Scott's Tactics for drills, then it is feasible that he would have used the calls as set in the manual. Lastly, it is hard to believe that Butterfield could have composed anything that July in the aftermath of the Seven Days battles which saw the Union Army of the Potomac mangled by Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. Over twenty six thousand casualties were suffered on both sides. Butterfield had lost over 600 of his men on June 27th at the battle of Gaines Mill and had himself been wounded. In the midst of the heat, humidity, mud, mosquitoes, dysentery, typhoid and general wretchedness of camp life in that early July, it is hard to imagine being able to write anything.

      In the interest of historical accuracy, it should be noted that it is not General Butterfield who composed Taps, rather that he revised an earlier call into the present day bugle call we know as Taps. This is not meant to take credit away from him. It is only to put things in a correct historic manner. Following the Peninsular Campaign, Butterfield served at 2nd Bull Run, Antietam and at Marye's Heights in the Battle of Fredericksburg. Through political connections and his ability for administration, he became a Major General and served as chief of staff of the Union Army of the Potomac under Generals Joseph Hooker and George Meade. He was wounded at Gettysburg and then reassigned to the Western Theater. By war's end, he was breveted a brigadier general and stayed in the army after the Civil War, serving as superintendent of the army's recruiting service in New York City and colonel of the 5th Infantry. In 1870, after resigning from the military, Butterfield went back to work with the American Express Company. He was in charge of a number of special public ceremonies, including General William Tecumseh Sherman's funeral in 1889. Besides his association with Taps, Butterfield also designed the system of Corps Badges which were distinctive shapes of color cloth sewn on to uniforms to distinguish units.

      Butterfield died in 1901. His tomb is the most ornate in the cemetery at West Point despite the fact that he never attended. There is also a monument to Butterfield in New York City near Grant's Tomb. There is nothing on either monument that mentions Taps or Butterfield's association with the call. Taps was sounded at his funeral.

      How did it become associated with funerals? The earliest official reference to the mandatory use of Taps at military funeral ceremonies is found in the U.S. Army Infantry Drill Regulations for 1891, although it had doubtless been used unofficially long before that time, under its former designation Extinguish Lights.

      The first use of Taps at a funeral during the Peninsular Campaign in Virginia. Captain John C. Tidball of Battery A, 2nd Artillery ordered it played for the burial of a cannoneer killed in action. Since the enemy was close, he worried that the traditional 3 volleys would renew fighting.

      During the Peninsular Campaign in 1862, a soldier of Tidball's Battery - A of the 2nd Artillery - was buried at a time when the battery occupied an advanced position, concealed in the woods. It was unsafe to fire the customary three volleys over the grave on account of the proximity of the enemy, and it occurred to Captain Tidball that the sounding of Taps would be the most ceremony that would be substituted. The custom, thus originated, was taken up throughout the Army of the Potomac, and finally confirmed by orders. Colonel James A. Moss Officer's Manual Pub. George Banta Publishing Co. Menasha Wisconsin 1913 Elbridge Coby in Army Talk (Princeton, 1942), p.208 states that it was B Battery of the Third Artillery that first used Taps at a military funeral.

      This first sounding of Taps at a military funeral is commemorated in a stained glass window at The Chapel of the Centurion (The Old Post Chapel) at Fort Monroe, Virginia. The window, made by R. Geissler of New York and based on a painting by Sidney King, was dedicated in 1958 and shows a bugler and a flag at half staff. In that picture a drummer boy stands beside the bugler. The grandson of that drummer boy purchased Berkeley Plantation where Harrisons Landing is located. The site where Taps was born is also commemorated. In this case, by a monument located on the grounds of Berkeley Plantation. This monument to Taps was erected by the Virginia American Legion and dedicated on July 4, 1969. The site is also rich in history, for the Harrisons of Berkeley Plantation included Benjamin Harrison and William Henry Harrison - both presidents of the United States and one a signer of the Declaration of Independence.

      It must be pointed out that other stories of the origin of Taps exist. A popular one is that of a Northern boy who was killed fighting for the south. His father, Robert Ellison a Captain in the Union Army, came upon his son's body on the battlefield and found the notes to Taps in a pocket of the dead boy's Confederate uniform. When Union General Daniel Sickles heard the story, he had the notes sounded at the boy's funeral. There is no evidence to back up the story or the existence of Captain Ellison. As with many other customs, this solemn tradition continues today. Although Butterfield merely revised an earlier bugle call, his role in producing those 24 notes gives him a place in the history of music as well as the history of war.

      As soon as Taps was sounded that night in July 1862, words were put with the music. The first were, "Go To Sleep, Go to Sleep." As the years went on many more versions were created. There are no official words to the music but here are some of the more popular verses:

      Day is done, gone the sun,
      From the hills, from the lake,
      From the skies.
      All is well, safely rest,
      God is nigh.

      Go to sleep, peaceful sleep,
      May the soldier or sailor,
      God keep.
      On the land or the deep,
      Safe in sleep.

      Love, good night, Must thou go,
      When the day, And the night
      Need thee so?
      All is well. Speedeth all
      To their rest.

      Fades the light And afar
      Goeth day, And the stars
      Shineth bright,
      Fare thee well Day has gone,
      Night is on.

      Thanks and praise, For our days,
      'Neath the sun, Neath the stars,
      'Neath the sky,
      As we go, This we know,
      God is nigh.

      Jari A. Villanueva is a Master Sergeant in the United States Air Force Band at Bolling Air Force Base in Washington DC. A graduate of Peabody Conservatory and Kent State University, he is currently working on an exhibit to be opened at Arlington National Cemetery and research on what will hopefully result in a work entitled: Day is Done. The History of Bugle Calls in The United States With Particular Attention To Taps.

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