Light Tank M3A3 Stuart in Sant' Andrea

Light Tank M3A3 Stuart in Sant' Andrea


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Light Tank M3A3 Stuart in Sant' Andrea

Here we see a Light Tank M3A3 'Stuart' in the streets of Sant' Andrea, on the western side of the Garigliano River, which fell to the Allies during the Fourth Battle of Cassino.


Light Tank M3 Stuart, early production 1-10

The M3 Stuart, known to the British as Stuart I or Honey (it was a "Honey" of a tank), was an evolution of the light tank M2A4, which incorporated a trailing idler suspension to decrease ground pressure and improve weight distribution, a lengthened hull superstructure rear, and also thicker armor. The turret of the M3 had three pistol ports, in contrast to the M2A4's seven. The recoil mechanism of the Stuart was also shortened so that it did not project from the gun shield. Early production M3s had riveted turrets. A vertical gyrostabilizer was introduced in 1942.


Light Tank M3A3 2020-05-27

Observing events in Europe, American tank designers realized that the Light Tank M2 was becoming obsolete and set about improving it. The upgraded design, with thicker armour, modified suspension and new gun recoil system was called "Light Tank M3". Production of the vehicle started in March 1941 and continued until October 1943. Like its direct predecessor, the M2A4, the M3 was initially armed with a 37 mm M5 gun and five .30-06 Browning M1919A4 machine guns: coaxial with the gun, on top of the turret in an M20 anti-aircraft mount, in a ball mount in right bow, and in the right and left hull sponsons. Later, the gun was replaced with the slightly longer M6, and the sponson machine guns were removed. For a light tank, the Stuart was fairly heavily armoured. It had 38 mm of armour on the upper front hull, 44 mm on the lower front hull, 51 mm on the gun mantlet, 38 mm on the turret sides, 25 mm on the hull sides, and 25 mm on the hull rear.

The M3 and M3A1 variants were powered by an air-cooled radial engine, either a gasoline-fueled 7-cylinder Continental W-670 (8,936 built) or a 9-cylinder Guiberson T-1020 diesel (1,496 built). Both of these powerplants were originally developed as aircraft engines. Internally, the radial engine was at the rear and the transmission at the front of the tank's hull. The propeller shaft connecting the engine and transmission ran through the middle of the fighting compartment. The radial engine's crankshaft was positioned high off the hull bottom and contributed to the tank's relatively tall profile. When a revolving turret floor was introduced in the M3 hybrid and M3A1, the crew had less room. A further 3,427 M3A3 variants were built with modified hull (similar to the M5), new turret and the Continental W-670 gasoline engine. In contrast to the M2A4, all M3/M5 series tanks had a trailing rear idler wheel for increased ground contact.

Free French Forces received these tanks in 1944.

The file contains the unit and pcx files. Model is not my own creation. Wyrmshadow helped with the animation files. I merely put the pieces together and cleaned up the model for CivIII and added some what if pieces. A big thanks to everyone that helped out!


Contents

In 1939, the U.S. Army possessed approximately 400 tanks, mostly M2 Light Tanks, with 18 of the to-be-discontinued M2 Medium Tanks as the only ones considered "modern". [6] The U.S. funded tank development poorly during the interwar years, and had little experience in design as well as poor doctrine to guide design efforts.

The M2 Medium Tank was typical of armored fighting vehicles (AFVs) many nations produced in 1939. When the U.S. entered the war, the M2 design was already obsolete with a 37 mm gun, an impractical number of secondary machine guns, a very high silhouette, and 32 mm frontal armor. The Panzer III and Panzer IV's success in the French campaign led the U.S. Army to immediately order a new medium tank armed with a 75 mm gun in a turret as a response. This would be the M4 Sherman. Until the Sherman reached production, an interim design with a 75 mm gun was urgently needed.

The M3 was the solution. The design was unusual because the main weapon – a larger caliber, medium-velocity 75 mm gun – was in an offset sponson mounted in the hull with limited traverse. The sponson mount was necessary because, at the time, American tank plants did not have the design experience necessary to make a gun turret capable of holding a 75 mm weapon. A small turret with a lighter, high-velocity 37 mm gun sat on top of the tall hull. A small cupola on top of the turret held a machine gun. The use of two main guns was seen on the French Char B1 and the Mark I version of the British Churchill tank. In each case, two weapons were mounted to give the tanks adequate capability in firing both anti-personnel high explosive and canister ammunition and armor-piercing ammunition for anti-tank combat. The M3 differed slightly from this pattern, having a main gun that could fire an armor-piercing projectile at a velocity high enough for effectively piercing armor, as well as deliver a high-explosive shell that was large enough to be effective. Using a hull mounted gun, the M3 design could be produced faster than a tank featuring a turreted gun. It was understood that the M3 design was flawed, but Britain [7] urgently needed tanks. A drawback of the sponson mount was that the M3 could not take a hull-down position and use its 75 mm gun at the same time. The M3 was tall and roomy: the power transmission ran through the crew compartment under the turret basket to the gearbox driving the front sprockets. Steering was by differential braking, with a turning circle of 37 ft (11 m). The vertical volute-sprung suspension (VVSS) units possessed a return roller mounted directly atop the main housing of each of the six suspension units (three per side), designed as self-contained and readily replaced modular units bolted to the hull sides. The turret was power-traversed by an electro-hydraulic system in the form of an electric motor providing the pressure for the hydraulic motor. This fully rotated the turret in 15 seconds. Control was from a spade grip on the gun. The same motor provided pressure for the gun stabilizing system.

The 75 mm gun was operated by a gunner and a loader sighting the gun used an M1 periscope – with an integral telescope – on the top of the sponson. The periscope rotated with the gun. The sight was marked from zero to 3,000 yd (2,700 m), [a] with vertical markings to aid deflection shooting at a moving target. The gunner laid the gun on target through geared handwheels for traverse and elevation. The shorter barreled 75 mm M2 cannon sometimes featured a counterweight at the end of the barrel to balance the gun for operation with the gyrostabilizer until the longer 75 mm M3 variant was brought into use. [8]

The 37 mm gun was aimed through the M2 periscope, mounted in the mantlet to the side of the gun. It also sighted the coaxial machine gun. Two range scales were provided: 0–1,500 yd (1,400 m) for the 37 mm and 0–1,000 yd (910 m) for the machine gun. The 37 mm gun also featured a counterweight – a long rod under the barrel – though it was ill maintained by crews who knew little about its use.

There were also two .30-06 Browning M1919A4 machine guns mounted in the hull, fixed in traverse but adjustable in elevation, which were controlled by the driver. These were, due to coordination issues, removed, though they would be seen on early Sherman tanks. [9]

Though not at war, the U.S. was willing to produce, sell and ship armored vehicles to Britain. The British had requested that their Matilda II infantry tank and Crusader cruiser tank designs be made by American factories, but this request was refused. With much of their equipment left on the beaches near Dunkirk, the equipment needs of the British were acute. Though not entirely satisfied with the design, they ordered the M3 in large numbers. British experts had viewed the mock-up in 1940 and identified features that they considered flaws – the high profile, the hull mounted main gun, the lack of a radio in the turret (though the tank did have a radio down in the hull), the riveted armor plating (whose rivets tended to pop off inside the interior in a deadly ricochet when the tank was hit by a non-penetrating round), the smooth track design, insufficient armor plating and lack of splash-proofing of the joints. [10]

The British desired modifications for the tank they were purchasing. A bustle rack was to be made at the back of the turret to house the Wireless Set No. 19. The turret was to be given thicker armor plate than in the original U.S. design, and the machine gun cupola was to be replaced with a simple hatch. Extended space within the turret of the new M3 also allowed the use of a smoke bomb launcher, although the addition of the radio would take the space for storage of fifty 37 mm rounds, reducing the ammunition capacity to 128 rounds. Several of these new "Grant" tanks would also be equipped with sand shields for action in North Africa, though they often fell off. [9] [11] With these modifications accepted, the British ordered 1,250 M3s. The order was subsequently increased with the expectation that when the M4 Sherman was available, it could replace part of the order. Contracts were arranged with three U.S. companies. The total cost of the order was approximately US$240 million, the sum of all British funds in the US it took the US Lend-Lease act to solve the financial shortfall.

The prototype was completed in March 1941 and production models followed, with the first British-specification tanks produced in July. Both U.S. and British tanks had thicker armor than first planned. [12] The British design required one fewer crew member than the US version due to the radio in the turret. The U.S. eventually eliminated the full-time radio operator, assigning the task to the driver. After extensive losses in Africa and Greece, the British realized that to meet their needs for tanks, both the Lee and the Grant types would need to be accepted.

The U.S. military used the "M" (Model) letter to designate nearly all of their equipment. When the British Army received their new M3 medium tanks from the US, confusion immediately set in [13] between the different M3 medium tank and M3 light tank. The British Army began naming their American tanks after American military figures, although the U.S. Army never used those terms until after the war. [14] [15] M3 tanks with the cast turret and radio setup received the name "General Grant", while the original M3s were called "General Lee", or more usually just "Grant" and "Lee". [14] [16]

The chassis and running gear of the M3 design was adapted by the Canadians for their Ram tank. The hull of the M3 was also used for self-propelled artillery as with the original design of the M7 Priest, of which nearly 3,500 were built, and recovery vehicles.

Of the 6,258 M3 variants manufactured in the United States, 2,887 (45%) were supplied to the British government. [17]

The M3 Grant first saw action with the Royal Armoured Corps in North Africa, during May 1942. However, most of the M3s ordered by the UK quickly became surplus to the requirements of the British Army.

  • 1,700 were transferred to the Australian Army, for home defence and training duties in Australia. [18]
  • The British Indian Army received 900 Grants
  • A further 22% (1,386) were exported directly from the US to the Soviet Union, [19] although only 957 of these reached Russian ports, due to German U-boat and air attacks on Allied convoys. [20]

North African campaign Edit

The M3 brought much-needed firepower to British forces in the North African desert campaign. Early Grants were shipped directly to Egypt and lacked some fitments (such as radio) that were remedied locally. Under the "Mechanisation Experimental Establishment (Middle East)" other modifications were tested approved and made to tanks as they were issued. These included fitting of sandshields (later deliveries from the US had factory fitted shields), dust covers for the gun mantlets and the removal of the hull machine guns. Ammunition stowage was altered to 80 75 mm (up from 50) and 80 37 mm with additional protection to the ammunition bins.

The American M3 medium tank's first action during the war was in 1942, during the North African Campaign. [21] British Lees and Grants were in action against Rommel's forces at the Battle of Gazala on 27 May that year. The 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars, 3rd and 5th battalions Royal Tank Regiment going into action with Grant tanks. Retreating in the face of large attack the 8th Hussars had only three of their Grants remaining, while 3rd RTR reported losing 16 Grants.

Their appearance was a surprise to the Germans, who were unprepared for the M3's 75 mm gun. They soon discovered the M3 could engage them beyond the effective range of their 5 cm Pak 38 anti-tank gun, and the 5 cm KwK 39 of the Panzer III, their main medium tank. The M3 was also vastly superior to the Fiat M13/40 and M14/41 tanks employed by the Italian troops, whose 47 mm gun was effective only at point-blank range, while only the few Semoventi da 75/18 self-propelled guns were able to destroy it using HEAT rounds. [22] In addition to the M3's 75 mm gun outranging the Panzers, they were equipped with high explosive shells to take out infantry and other soft targets, which previous British tanks lacked upon the introduction of the M3, Rommel noted: "Up to May of 1942, our tanks had in general been superior in quality to the corresponding British types. This was now no longer true, at least not to the same extent." [23]

Despite the M3's advantages and surprise appearance during the Battle of Gazala, it could not win the battle for the British. In particular, the high-velocity 88 mm Flak gun, adapted as an anti-tank gun, proved deadly if British tanks attacked without artillery support. [24] Britain's Director of Armoured Fighting Vehicles nonetheless said before the M4 Sherman arrived that "The Grants and the Lees have proven to be the mainstay of the fighting forces in the Middle East their great reliability, powerful armament and sound armor have endeared them to the troops." [25]

Grants and Lees served with British units in North Africa until the end of the campaign. Following Operation Torch (the invasion of French North Africa), the U.S. also fought in North Africa using the M3 Lee.

The US 1st Armored Division had been issued new M4 Shermans, but had to give up one regiment's worth to the British Army prior to the Second Battle of El Alamein. Consequently, a regiment of the division was still using the M3 Lee in North Africa.

The M3 was generally appreciated during the North African campaign for its mechanical reliability, good armor protection, and heavy firepower. [b] In all three aspects, the M3 was capable of engaging German tanks and towed anti-tank guns. [ citation needed ]

However, the high silhouette and low, hull-mounted 75 mm were tactical drawbacks since they prevented fighting from a hull-down firing position. In addition, the use of riveted hull superstructure armor on the early versions led to spalling, where the impact of enemy shells caused the rivets to break off and become projectiles inside the tank. Later models were built with all-welded armor to eliminate this problem. These lessons had already been applied to the design and production of the M4.

The M3 was replaced in front-line roles by the M4 Sherman as soon as the M4 was available. However, several specialist vehicles based on the M3 were later employed in Europe, such as the M31 armored recovery vehicle and the Canal Defence Light.

Eastern Europe- Soviet Service Edit

Beginning from 1941, 1,386 M3 medium tanks were shipped from the USA to the Soviet Union, with 417 lost during shipping (when they went down with their transporting vessels which were lost to German submarine, naval and aerial attacks en route). [20] [27] These were supplied through the American Lend-Lease program between 1942 and 1943.

Like British Commonwealth units, Soviet Red Army personnel tended to refer to the M3 as the "Grant", even though all of the M3s shipped to Russia were technically of the "Lee" variants. The official Soviet designation for it was the М3 средний (М3с), or "M3 Medium", to distinguish the Lee from the US-built M3 Stuart light tank, which was also acquired by the USSR under Lend-Lease and was officially known there as the М3 лёгкий (М3л), or "M3 Light". [28] Due to the vehicle's petrol-fuelled engine, a high tendency to catch fire, and its vulnerability against most types of German armour the Soviet troops encountered from 1942 onwards, the tank was almost entirely unpopular with the Red Army since its induction into the Eastern Front. [29]

With almost 1,500 of their own T-34 tanks being built every month, Soviet use of the M3 medium tank declined soon after mid-1943. Soviet troops still fielded their Lee/Grant tanks on secondary and quieter/less-action fronts, such as in the Arctic region during the Red Army's Petsamo–Kirkenes Offensive against German forces in Norway in October 1944, where the obsolete US tanks faced mainly captured French tanks used by the Germans, such as the SOMUA S35, which to a limited extent was somewhat comparable to the Lee/Grant it fought against.

Pacific War Edit

In the Pacific War, armored warfare played a relatively minor role for the Allies as well as for the Japanese, compared with that of naval, [30] air, [31] and infantry units.

In the Pacific Ocean Theater and the Southwest Pacific Theater, the U.S. Army deployed none of its dedicated armored divisions and only a third of its 70 other separate tank battalions.

A small number of M3 Lees saw action in the central Pacific Ocean Theater in 1943.

While the US Marine Corps deployed all six of its tank battalions, [32] none of these were equipped with the M3 Lee. (USMC tank battalions were equipped initially with M3 Stuarts, which were then replaced by M4 Shermans in mid-1944. [33] )

Some M3 Grants played an offensive role with the British Indian Army, in the Southeast Asian Theater.

The Australian Army also used Grants during World War II, mainly for homeland defence and training purposes.

Pacific Ocean Theater Edit

The only combat use of the M3 Lee by the US Army against Japanese forces [34] occurred during the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign of 1943.

Following the better-known landing at Tarawa, the US 27th Infantry Division made an amphibious assault on Makin Island with armoured support from a platoon of M3A5 Lees equipped with deep-wading kits belonging to the US Army's 193rd Tank Battalion.

Burma Edit

After British Commonwealth forces in Europe and the Mediterranean began receiving M4 Shermans, about 900 British-ordered M3 Lees/Grants were shipped to the Indian Army. Some of these saw action against Japanese troops and tanks in the Burma Campaign of WWII. [18]

They were used by the British Fourteenth Army [35] until the fall of Rangoon, [35] regarded as performing "admirably" in the original intended role of supporting infantry in Burma between 1944 and 1945. [35] [36]

In the Burma Campaign, the M3 medium tank's main task was infantry support. It played a pivotal role during the Battle of Imphal, during which the Imperial Japanese Army's 14th Tank Regiment (primarily equipped with their own Type 95 Ha-Go light tanks, together with a handful of captured British M3 Stuart light tanks as well) encountered M3 medium tanks for the first time and found their light tanks outgunned and outmatched by the better British armour. [37] Despite their worse-than-average off-road performance, the British M3 tanks performed well as they traversed the steep hillsides around Imphal and defeated the assaulting Japanese forces. Officially declared obsolete in April 1944, [35] nevertheless, the Lee/Grant saw action until the end of the war in September 1945.

Australia Edit

At the beginning of the war, Australian Army doctrine viewed tank units as minor offensive components within infantry divisions. It had no dedicated armoured branch and most of its very limited capabilities in tank warfare had been deployed to the North African Campaign (i.e. three divisional cavalry battalions). By early 1941, the effectiveness of large-scale German panzer attacks had been recognised, and a dedicated armoured mustering was formed. The Australian Armoured Corps initially included the cadres of three armoured divisions – all of which were equipped at least partly with M3 Grants made available from surplus British orders.

The 1st Australian Armoured Division was formed with a view towards complementing the three Australian infantry divisions then in North Africa. However, following the outbreak of hostilities with Japan, [38] the division was retained in Australia. During April–May 1942, the 1st Armoured Division's regiments were reported to be re-equipping with M3 Grants and were training, in a series of large exercises, in the area around Narrabri, New South Wales. [38]

The cadres of other two divisions, the 2nd and 3rd Armoured Divisions were both officially formed in 1942, as Militia (reserve/home defence) units. These divisions were also partly equipped with M3 Grants. [39]

In January 1943, the main body of the 1st Armoured Division was deployed to home defence duties between Perth and Geraldton, Western Australia, where it formed part of III Corps. [38]

By the middle of the war, the Australian Army had deemed the Grant to be unsuitable for combat duties overseas and M3 units were re-equipped with the Matilda II before being deployed to the New Guinea and Borneo Campaigns. Due to personnel shortages, all three divisions were officially disbanded during 1943 and downgraded to brigade- and battalion-level units. [39]

Post-war use in Australia Edit

During the war, the Australian Army had converted some M3 Grants for special purposes, including a small number of bulldozer variants, beach armoured recovery vehicles, and wader prototypes.

Following the end of the war, 14 of the Australian M3A5 Grants were converted to a local self-propelled gun design, the Yeramba, becoming the only SPG ever deployed by the Australian Army. Fitted with a 25-pounder field gun, the Yerambas remained in service with the 22nd Field Regiment, Royal Australian Artillery, until the late 1950s.

Many M3s deemed surplus to Australian Army requirements were acquired by civilian buyers during the 1950s and 1960s for conversion to earthmoving equipment and/or tractors.

Conclusion Edit

Overall, the M3 was able to be effective on the battlefield from 1942 until 1943. However, US armored units lacked tactical expertise on a method to overcome its design. [40] Its armor and firepower were equal or superior to most of the threats it faced, especially in the Pacific. Long-range, high-velocity guns were not yet common on German tanks in the African theater. However, the rapid pace of tank development meant that the M3 was very quickly outclassed. By mid-1942, with the introduction of the German Tiger I, the up-gunning of the Panzer IV to a long 75 mm gun, and the first appearance in 1943 of the Panther, along with the availability of large numbers of the M4 Sherman, the M3 was withdrawn from service in the European Theater.


In Game

This is the American tier II tank. It is tied for the highest firepower with the T-46, though it has a slighly faster rate of fire and a quicker turret. But it is also very slow on mobility if not fully upgraded compared to its tier II counterparts. This tank can be used to battle head to head with any tank in its tier or lower, though it should stick to flanking tier III opponents, who will tear them apart if they go head to head. It is best to work in groups and concentrate firepower on one tank at a time.


Game Play

One word defines the Stuart experience, after weeks of slow French tanks in Battleground Europe: speed. This thing is very fast, with good turret rotation speed and a powerful gun for such a small caliber. The tank acts like and can be used like an armored car. Engage and move, and when you move, move in cover and behind crest-lines to deny the enemy the long shots they will take, knowing your armour is thin. That is why this tank is so fast, because it is lightly armored. Don’t mistake the Stuart for a main battle tank it certainly isn’t one, but it is an excellent tank for sweeping around the edges of the enemy territory, picking off targets of opportunity that you can surprise with a little caution and a lot of guts. Once in a while, you can even get away with a dash up close but never stop moving and firing or you will get caught and killed quickly.

Its best role is that of a scouting tank that can really pack a wallop up close.

The driver position in this tank has no view slit, you must either use the periscope (numpad “.” or “Del” key) or unbutton with the “O” key, which will pop your driver's head above the top hull plate into the open air. Crew position 4 is the radioman and has a hull .30cal LMG with gunsight. This position can also unbutton, which also pops the crew member's head through the top hull plate hatch.

If you can develop that fine balance of caution, fast flanking, and cavalry charge/shoot/disappear style of combat that favors this little honey, you’ll probably do very well in it. If you can’t, then you probably won’t.


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M3A3 STUART U.S. ARMY LIGHT TANK AFV CLUB 1/35 BUILD AND PAINTING TO FINISH

AFV UK

It is a U.S. light tank built in March 2009.

Making of the light tank Stuart U.S. Army.

As for assembly around the chassis, parts were little but the structure was complex. I noticed to touch the ground all the wheels.

The rack is photo-etched parts like a real wire net.

The upper and lower body matched without trouble. I lost 2 tiny parts.
(2009/03/01)

Two front wire hooks were lost. Since there was no other way, I made them from the brass wire.

I thinly planed the fender with the design knife. Because of the light tank, it looks better. The machine-gun post and the barrel were aluminum parts.

There are many detailed plastic parts, though the photo-etched parts are few.

Especially, a spare caterpillar on the front side and the turret side is detailed and painful. The variation without spare caterpillar is optional.

I painted basic color in olive drab.
(2009/03/07)

Before pasting decals, I sprayed clear to adhere to decal sticking. I chose the marking of British, 5th Royal Tank Regiment, 22nd Amd Brigade in June 1944. Red marks are colorful and nice.
(2009/03/20)

This figure makes out the tank was very small. When I bent the arm by force, it became unnatural.
(2009/03/25)

M3A3 Stuart was completed. The armor plate is changed from the riveted joint to the welding compared with M3A1, and the slope of a front armor has been changed. A British army fought bravely against the Japanese in the Pacific War.

I did silver dry-brushing too much.

I irregularly depicted rust and mud with washing. I changed the tone since it was unattractive when it was a single color.

The assembly of a spare caterpillar is difficult and it seems rattled.

It seems not to have been used by the U.S. Army, though M3 was supplied for Allied Forces by the Lend-Lease Acts. A Yugoslavia army, a British army, and the example of Allied Forces such as China were listed in the instruction examples. I chose the marking of the British, 5th Royal Tank Regiment, 22nd Amd Brigade in June 1944.

The variable parts became obstructed and I abandoned to take the crew on this turret which opening all the hatches are difficult. However, I took the driver by force. The turret did not turn so much.

I did the pastel work as the powder since it had been used in Normandy.

Periscopes were painted in blue. Since it was a matte painting, I made them paint clear and shine.

It took time, though it was a small body. There is the shot looked into from the under like the real solder eyesight.

M3A3 Stuart is difficult for me, but I’m content with the completion.
(2009/03/31)

I am interested in models of tanks, airplanes, ships, military figures, I build it little by little when I feel like it. I am also interested in the history of war. My starting is Tamiya’s Military Miniature series in the elementary school.
From elementary school through university students repeatedly suspend and restart my modeling, it’s about 25 years of this hobby’s history.
Born in February 1970, I live in Tokyo. From February 2007 I was quietly doing a site called “Miniature-Arcadia”. It is being transferred to this blog with the same name from December 2016. My update pace is uneven, but please come to see here occasionally.


Light Tank M3A3 Stuart in Sant' Andrea - History

/Vehicles/Allies/USA/01-LightTanks/M3-MStuart/File/ 4-Models .htm | Up-dated:

Le M3 est le modèle de base de la série. La caisse était boulonnée. Il était doté de mitrailleuses latérales et quatre types de tourelle y furent montées. Le M3 fut équipé en majorité du moteur essence Continental mais certains exemplaires furent produits avec le moteur diesel Guiberson.

M3 is the basic model of the series. The hull was bolted. It was equipped with side machine-guns and four types of turret were assembled there. M3 was equipped in majority with the Continental gasoline engine but certain specimens were produced with the Guiberson diesel engine.

M3 Stuart avec tourelle D38976

M3 Stuart avec tourelle D58101

Les modèles équipés du moteur Continental furent appelés Stuart I par les Britanniques et ceux équipés du Guiberson, Stuart II.

The models equipped with the Continental engine were called Stuart I by the British and those equipped with Guiberson, Stuart II.


Light Tank M3A1 2020-05-27

Observing events in Europe, American tank designers realized that the Light Tank M2 was becoming obsolete and set about improving it. The upgraded design, with thicker armour, modified suspension and new gun recoil system was called "Light Tank M3". Production of the vehicle started in March 1941 and continued until October 1943. Like its direct predecessor, the M2A4, the M3 was initially armed with a 37 mm M5 gun and five .30-06 Browning M1919A4 machine guns: coaxial with the gun, on top of the turret in an M20 anti-aircraft mount, in a ball mount in right bow, and in the right and left hull sponsons. Later, the gun was replaced with the slightly longer M6, and the sponson machine guns were removed. For a light tank, the Stuart was fairly heavily armoured. It had 38 mm of armour on the upper front hull, 44 mm on the lower front hull, 51 mm on the gun mantlet, 38 mm on the turret sides, 25 mm on the hull sides, and 25 mm on the hull rear.

The M3 and M3A1 variants were powered by an air-cooled radial engine, either a gasoline-fueled 7-cylinder Continental W-670 (8,936 built) or a 9-cylinder Guiberson T-1020 diesel (1,496 built). Both of these powerplants were originally developed as aircraft engines. Internally, the radial engine was at the rear and the transmission at the front of the tank's hull. The propeller shaft connecting the engine and transmission ran through the middle of the fighting compartment. The radial engine's crankshaft was positioned high off the hull bottom and contributed to the tank's relatively tall profile. When a revolving turret floor was introduced in the M3 hybrid and M3A1, the crew had less room. A further 3,427 M3A3 variants were built with modified hull (similar to the M5), new turret and the Continental W-670 gasoline engine. In contrast to the M2A4, all M3/M5 series tanks had a trailing rear idler wheel for increased ground contact.

Free French Forces received these tanks in 1941.

The file contains the unit and pcx files. Model is not my own creation. Wyrmshadow helped with the animation files. I merely put the pieces together and cleaned up the model for CivIII and added some what if pieces. A big thanks to everyone that helped out!


Watch the video: When Hans gets taken by a Stuart light tank