28 February 1940

28 February 1940

28 February 1940



Winter War

Finns retreat on Viipuri front


Factories not needed for the war effort officially to be closed.

First televised college hoops game featured Pitt, Fordham in 1940

/>A scene from the historic evening, when Pitt and Fordham did battle on TV.

The first televised college basketball game was played Feb. 28. 1940, when Pitt faced off against Fordham at, fittingly, Madison Square Garden.

Quick Facts
What First televised basketball game
Who Fordham vs. Pittsburgh
When February 28, 1940
Where Madison Square Garden, New York City, NY
Broadcast By NBC on W2XBS
Viewers Estimations vary from 400-1,000
Result Pittsburgh won 57-37

The most famous arena in the country and home to plenty of famous college basketball moments to come was the perfect spot to debut the new technology. The double-header that day in 1940 included a second act with No. 1-ranked NYU (!) against Georgetown.

The game was broadcast on W2XBS, one of a handful of experimental stations started as forerunners to the modern television broadcast networks. Today, W2XBS is known as WNBC, or Channel 4 New York, the flagship station of the NBC television network.

Imagine: the ability to go back in time, to take in the sights and sounds of the first basketball game ever broadcast on television. Except… it wasn’t all that big of a deal. It was so readily ignored by the majority of the public that finding artifacts from the game itself isn’t easy. The photos above and below come courtesy of Fordham's Joe Di Bari.

Fordham University also has a pair of photos from that night atop this article from the 75th anniversary of the game, and Getty Images has a pretty great photograph from the game at this link as well. But coverage of the game (and especially coverage of the historic moment in television history) is hard to come by because television simply wasn’t a big deal at the time. According to Mitchell Stephens, professor of journalism and mass communication at NYU, “before 1947 the number of U.S. homes with television sets could be measured in the thousands.”

An NBC Sports promotional poster, featuring pictures from the game. The Pittsburgh Press's story from Feb. 29.

Interestingly enough, just five months earlier the first televised football game also featured Fordham, and a small corner of a page in the next day’s New York Times was devoted to the hosts’ win against Waynesburg: “The Rams had the televised game well in hand by halftime” was the only mention of TV’s moment in the Times’ story.

As for the basketball game itself, Fordham kept things close in the first half, trailing 28-23 at halftime. But the Panthers used a 14-2 run in the first eight minutes of the second half to open up a huge lead and went on to win by 20 points, ultimately outscoring the Rams 29-14 after the break.

Fordham would finish that year with an 11-8 record, Pitt with an 8-9 record, and neither reached the NCAA tournament, which that season was in just its second year.

They both, however, held a piece of history.

Adam Hermann has written for PhillyVoice.com, the Philadelphia Inquirer, the Philadelphia Daily News, Philadelphia magazine, SB Nation and NBC Sports Philadelphia.

The views on this page do not necessarily reflect the views of the NCAA or its member institutions.

Early Feminists 

In his classic Republic, Plato advocated that women possess “natural capacities” equal to men for governing and defending ancient Greece. Not everyone agreed with Plato when the women of ancient Rome staged a massive protest over the Oppian Law, which restricted women’s access to gold and other goods, Roman consul Marcus Porcius Cato argued, 𠇊s soon as they begin to be your equals, they will have become your superiors!” (Despite Cato’s fears, the law was repealed.)

In The Book of the City of Ladies, 15th-century writer Christine de Pizan protested misogyny and the role of women in the Middle Ages. Years later, during the Enlightenment, writers and philosophers like Margaret Cavendish, the Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and Mary Wollstonecraft, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, argued vigorously for greater equality for women.

Abigail Adams, first lady to President John Adams, specifically saw access to education, property and the ballot as critical to women’s equality. In letters to her husband John Adams, Abigail Adams warned, “If particular care and attention is not paid to the Ladies we are determined to foment a Rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice.”

The “Rebellion” that Adams threatened began in the 19th century, as calls for greater freedom for women joined with voices demanding the end of slavery. Indeed, many women leaders of the abolitionist movement found an unsettling irony in advocating for African Americans rights that they themselves could not enjoy.

UPI Almanac for Sunday, Feb. 28, 2021

Today is Sunday, Feb. 28, the 59th day of 2021 with 306 to follow.

The moon is waning. Morning stars are Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Saturn and Venus. Evening stars are Mars, Neptune and Uranus.

Those born on this date are under the sign of Pisces. They include French essayist Michel de Montaigne in 1533 chemist/physicist Linus Pauling, twice winner of the Nobel Prize (peace and chemistry), in 1901 movie director Vincente Minnelli in 1903 actor Billie Bird in 1908 actor Charles Durning in 1923 Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, in 1926 architect Frank Gehry in 1929 (age 92) actor Gavin MacLeod in 1931 (age 90) dancer Tommy Tune in 1939 (age 82) former race car driver Mario Andretti in 1940 (age 81) musician Brian Jones in 1942 actor Kelly Bishop in 1944 (age 77) former U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu in 1948 (age 73) actor Bernadette Peters in 1948 (age 73) actor Mercedes Ruehl in 1948 (age 73) newspaper columnist/Nobel laureate Paul Krugman in 1953 (age 68) comedian Gilbert Gottfried in 1955 (age 66) actor John Turturro in 1957 (age 64) actor Rae Dawn Chong in 1961 (age 60) singer Patrick Monahan in 1969 (age 52) actor Robert Sean Leonard in 1969 (age 52) actor Tasha Smith in 1971 (age 50) hockey Hall of Fame member Eric Lindros in 1973 (age 48) actor Ali Larter in 1976 (age 45) country singer Jason Aldean in 1977 (age 44) actor Sarah Bolger in 1991 (age 30).

In 1784, the Methodist Church was chartered by John Wesley.

In 1844, an explosion rocked the "war steamer" USS Princeton after it test-fired one of its guns. The blast killed or injured a number of top U.S. government officials who were aboard.

In 1885, the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. was incorporated in New York as a subsidiary of American Bell Telephone.

In 1935, nylon was invented by DuPont researcher Wallace Carothers.

In 1942, Japanese forces landed in Java, the last Allied bastion in the Dutch East Indies.

In 1983, the concluding episode of the long-running television series M*A*S*H drew what was then the largest TV audience in U.S. history.

In 1986, Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme was assassinated on a street in Stockholm.

In 1992, a bomb blast blamed on the IRA ripped through a London railway station, injuring at least 30 people and shutting down the British capital's rail and subway system.

In 1993, federal agents attempting to serve warrants on the Branch Davidian religious cult's compound near Waco, Texas, were met with gunfire that left at least five people dead and 15 injured, and marked the start of a month-and-a-half-long standoff.

In 1994, NATO was involved in combat for the first time in its 45-year history when four U.S. fighter planes operating under NATO auspices shot down four Serb planes that had violated the U.N. no-fly zone in central Bosnia. The action came to be known as the Banja Luka incident.

In 2008, Prince Harry, third in line for the British throne, was pulled from the front lines in Afghanistan immediately after word got out that he was on army duty. He had spent 10 weeks in the war zone.

In 2020, an arbitration court handed an eight-year ban to three-time Chinese Olympic swimming champion Sun Yang, one of China's best hopes for hold in the Tokyo Olympics, for potential doping.

A thought for the day: "In general my children refuse to eat anything that hasn't danced on television." -- American humorist Erma Bombeck

July 21st, 1940 is a Sunday. It is the 203rd day of the year, and in the 29th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 3rd quarter of the year. There are 31 days in this month. 1940 is a leap year, so there are 366 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 7/21/1940, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 21/7/1940.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Leadership Edit

Major General Sean C. Bernabe assumed command of the 1st Armored Division on 30 September 2020. [2] Deputy commander Brigadier General Matthew L. Eichburg had been serving as the interim commanding officer since 28 July 2020. [3]

The division command group consists of: [4]

  • Commanding General: Major General Sean C. Bernabe
  • Deputy Commanding Officer (Operations): Brigadier General Matthew L. Eichburg
  • Deputy Commanding General (Maneuver): Brigadier Andrew D. Cox MBE
  • Deputy Commanding Officer (Support): Colonel Frank J. Stanco
  • Chief of Staff: Colonel Chad C. Chalfont : Command Sergeant Major Michael C. Williams

Units Edit

The division has been reorganized under the new modular design after moving to Fort Bliss, in which the deployable unit of maneuver is a brigade rather than a division. It consists of a division headquarters battalion, three armored brigade combat teams, a combat aviation brigade, a sustainment brigade, and a division artillery, [5] field artillery battalions are assigned to their respective brigade combat teams.

The division's 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team was deactivated after leaving Afghanistan in spring 2015, and its maneuver battalions were reassigned to the remaining three brigade combat teams subsequently the division's 4th Armored Brigade Combat Team was re-flagged as 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team. [6]

1st Armored Division consists of the following elements:

    Division Headquarters and Headquarters Battalion "Gladiator"
    • Headquarters and Support Company
    • Operations Company
    • Intelligence and Sustainment Company
    • Division Signal Company
    • 1st Armored Division Band
    • Headquarters and Headquarters Company (HHC) 6th Squadron, 1st Cavalry Regiment 2nd Battalion, 37th Armor Regiment 4th Battalion, 70th Armor Regiment1st Battalion, 36th Infantry Regiment2nd Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment (FAR) 16th Brigade Engineer Battalion (BEB)
    • 501st Brigade Support Battalion (BSB)
    • HHC 1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry Regiment 1st Battalion, 35th Armor Regiment 1st Battalion, 37th Armor Regiment 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment4th Battalion, 27th FAR 40th Brigade Engineer Battalion
    • 47th Brigade Support Battalion
    • HHC 2nd Squadron, 13th Cavalry Regiment 1st Battalion, 67th Armor Regiment 1st Battalion, 77th Armor Regiment 4th Battalion, 6th Infantry Regiment 4th Battalion, 1st FAR[6] 2nd Brigade Engineer Battalion 123rd Brigade Support Battalion [11]
    • Headquarters and Headquarters Battery
    • 24th Theater Public Affairs Support Element (TPASE)
      Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division "Iron Eagle"
        HHC 3rd Squadron (Heavy Attack-Reconnaissance), 6th Cavalry Regiment "Heavy Cavalry" [14][15][16] 1st Battalion (Attack), 501st Aviation Regiment "Iron Dragons" 2nd Battalion (General Support), 501st Aviation Regiment "Desert Knights" 3rd Battalion (Assault), 501st Aviation Regiment "Apocalypse" 127th Aviation Support Battalion "Work Horse"
        HHC Special Troops Battalion "Iron Legion" 142nd Combat Sustainment Support Battalion "Atlas"

      The division was nicknamed "Old Ironsides" by its first commander, Major General Bruce Magruder, after he saw a picture of the frigate USS Constitution, also nicknamed "Old Ironsides". The large "1" at the top represents the numerical designation of the division and the insignia is used as a basis for most of the other sub-unit insignias.

      In January 1918, the Tank Corps of the United States Army was established under Colonel Samuel Rockenbach. [18] At his direction, First Lieutenant J. P. Wharton designed the original coat of arms: a triangle on a shield surrounded by a wreath and a silver dragon. The triangle itself is an old heraldic element of armorial design known as a pile, representing the head of a spear. There was no shoulder patch in 1918.

      The 7th Cavalry Brigade (mechanized) contributed the other part of the present-day Armor shoulder patch. The brigade formed out of the 1st Cavalry Regiment in Marfa Texas, on 16 January 1933 under General Daniel Van Voorhis, then Colonel of the Cavalry. The 7th Cavalry Brigade included the 13th Cavalry and had been organized specifically to develop the new armored force concept while training in the emerging modern war-fighting tactics.

      Colonel George F. Linthwaite (then a newly enlisted Private) joined the 13th Cavalry regiment in 1933. Major General Robert W. Grow (then a Major and brigade adjutant) was instructed to develop a shoulder patch for the new armored force. Grow announced to the brigade that a contest would be held to design the new Armored force patch. A three-day weekend pass was awarded to the designer of the winning entry.

      Linthwaite won the contest: he designed a circular patch, four inches in diameters, with a solid yellow-gold background to symbolize the Cavalry heritage. On the face of the patch, he drew a stylized black tank track with a drive and idler sprockets to symbolize mobility. In the center of the track at a slight diagonal, he placed a single cannon barrel, also in black, to symbolize firepower. Finally, to symbolize the striking power of the new armored force, he added a diagonal lightning bolt in red, extending across the total design and full diameter of the patch.

      In 1940, Major General Adna R. Chaffee Jr. was promoted to lead the newly created Armor Forces which had evolved from the old 7th Cavalry Brigade and were preparing for the looming war in Europe. Chaffee wanted a patch for this new Armored Force. He chose to combine the 7th Brigade patch with the triangle from the World War I crest. The tri-colors, with blue for infantry, red for artillery, and yellow for cavalry – represented the three basic components of the mechanized armed force. In 1940 the War Department officially designated the now-familiar patch worn by soldiers of all United States Army Armored Divisions. [19]

      World War II Edit

      On 15 July 1940, the 1st Armored Division, largely an expanded and reorganized version of the 7th Cavalry Brigade, was activated at Fort Knox under the command of Major General Bruce Magruder. The 1st Cavalry Regiment was re-designated as the 1st Armored Regiment and the 13th Cavalry Regiment was re-designated as the 13th Armored Regiment under the 1st Armored Brigade, 1st Armored Division. [20] For more than two years after its activation, the 1st Armored Division trained at Fort Knox and the division pioneered and developed tank gunnery and strategic armored offensives while increasing from 66 medium-sized tanks to over 600 medium and light armored vehicles. [20]

      Order of battle Edit

      The first order of battle for the 1st Armored Division was: [21] [22] HHC, 1st Armored Division

      On 15 April 1941 the division sent a cadre to form the 4th Armored Division at Pine Camp, New York.

      Commanders Edit

        Bruce Magruder (July 1940 – March 1942) [23]
      1. MG Orlando Ward (March 1942 – April 1943)
      2. MG Ernest N. Harmon (April 1943 – July 1944)
      3. MG Vernon Prichard (July 1944 – September 1945)
      4. MG Roderick R. Allen (September 1945 – January 1946)
      5. MG Hobart R. Gay (February 1946 to inactivation)

      Training Edit

      On 15 July 1940 the division was trained at Fort Knox, Kentucky. It was a new experiment in a self-supporting, self-sustaining blitzkrieg force. It had never been carried out before and the troops necessary for this kind of force were drawn from a variety of army posts.

      When the organization was completed, the division had tanks, artillery, and infantry. In direct support were tank destroyer, maintenance, medical, supply and engineer battalions, but bringing the division up to its full quota of tanks, guns, and vehicles was difficult. Although new equipment was received almost daily, the division had only nine outdated medium tanks primarily armed with guns until March 1941. Most of the division attended the Armored Force School at Knox to train in using their newly acquired tanks, half-tracks, and guns.

      The division left in September 1941 for three months to participate in maneuvers in Louisiana. The division returned to Fort Knox the day before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Training took on a new intensity. The division was reorganized, and all tanks, both medium and light were put into two armored regiments, the 1st and 13th. A third armored field artillery battalion, the 91st, was formed, and the 701st Tank Destroyer Battalion was organized and attached to the division.

      At Fort Knox, the division participated in the Technicolor short movie The Tanks Are Coming (as the "First Armored Force"). It deployed to participate in the VII Corps Maneuvers on 18 August 1941. Once the maneuvers concluded, the 1st Armored Division then moved on 28 August 1941 and arrived at Camp Polk for the Second Army Louisiana Maneuvers on 1 September 1941. They then moved to Fort Jackson on 30 October 1941 to participate in the First Army Carolina Maneuvers. The 1st AD returned to Fort Knox on 7 December 1941 but started to prepare for deployment overseas instead of returning to garrison.

      The 1st Armored Division was ordered to Fort Dix on 11 April 1942 to await their deployment overseas. The division's port call required them to board the RMS Queen Mary at the New York Port of Embarkation at the Brooklyn Army Terminal on 11 May 1942. They arrived in Northern Ireland on 16 May 1942 and trained on the moors until they moved on to England on 29 October 1942. The division was now commanded by Major General Orlando Ward.

      Combat operations Edit

      A volunteer squadron of three M3 Grant crews from the 1st Armored Division, commanded by Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. and placed under British command, fought in the Battle of Gazala in June 1942, becoming the first Americans to engage the Germans on land in the war. [24]

      Alerted for the invasion were the 1st Battalion of the 1st Armored Regiment, the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 13th Armored Regiment, nearly all the 6th Armored Infantry Regiment, the 27th Armored Field Artillery Battalion, "B" and "C" Companies of the 701st Tank Destroyer Battalion, and detachments of the 16th Armored Engineer Battalion, the Supply Battalion, the Maintenance Battalion, 47th Armored Medical Battalion, and the 141st Signal Company.

      The unit proper's first contact with an enemy was as part of the Allied invasion of Northwest Africa, Operation Torch, on 8 November 1942. Elements of the division became part of the Northern Task Force and became the first American armored division to see combat in World War II. Combat Command B (CCB) of the division landed east and west of Oran under the command of Brigadier General Lunsford E. Oliver and entered the city on 10 November 1942. On 24 November 1942, CCB moved from Tafraoui, Algeria to Bedja, Tunisia, and raided the Djedeida airfield the next day and conquered the city on 28 November 1942. CCB moved southwest of Tebourba on 1 December 1942, engaged with German forces on El Guessa Heights on 3 December 1942, but its lines were pierced on 6 December 1942. CCB withdrew to Bedja with heavy equipment losses between 10 and 11 December 1942 and was placed in reserve. CCB next attacked in the Ousseltia Valley on 21 January 1943, and cleared that area until 29 January 1943 when sent to Bou Chebka, and arrived at Maktar on 14 February 1943.

      Combat Command A (CCA) fought at Faïd Pass commencing on 30 January 1943, and advanced to Sidi Bou Zid, where it was pushed back with heavy tank losses on 14 February 1943, and had elements isolated on Djebel Lessouda, Djebel Kasaira, and Garet Hadid. Combat Command C (CCC), which was formed on 23 January 1943 to raid Sened Station on 24 January, advanced towards Sbeita and counterattacked to support CCA in the Sidi Bou Zid area on 15 February 1943, but was forced to retreat with heavy losses. The division withdrew from Sbeita on 16 February 1943, but by 21 February 1943 CCB contained the German attack toward Tébessa. The German withdrawal allowed the division to recover Kasserine Pass on 26 February 1943 and assemble in reserve. The division moved northeast of Gafsa on 13 March 1943 and attacked in heavy rains on 17 March 1943 as CCA took Zannouch, but became immobilized by rain the next day. The division drove on Maknassy on 20 March 1943, and fought the Battle of Djebel Naemia on 22–25 March 1943, and then fought to break through positions barring the road to Gabès between 29 March and 1 April 1943. It followed up on the withdrawing German forces on 6 April 1943 and attacked towards Mateur with CCA on 27 April 1943, which fell after fighting on Hill 315 and Hill 299 on 3 May 1943. The division, now commanded by Major General Ernest N. Harmon, fought the Battle for Djebel Achtel between 5 and 11 May 1943 and entered Ferryville on 7 May 1943. With the British forces taking Tunis and Americans in Bizerte, the Axis forces in Tunisia surrendered between 9 and 13 May 1943. The division was reorganized in French Morocco and began arriving in Naples, Italy on 28 October 1943.

      Reorganization 1943 Edit

      The division was reorganized on 15 September 1943. Its new composition was: [25]

      • Headquarters Company
      • Combat Command A
      • Combat Command B
      • Reserve Command
      • 1st Tank Battalion
      • 4th Tank Battalion
      • 13th Tank Battalion
      • 6th Armored Infantry Battalion
      • 11th Armored Infantry Battalion
      • 14th Armored Infantry Battalion
      • 81st Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (Mechanized)
      • 16th Armored Engineer Battalion
      • 141st Armored Signal Company
      • 1st Armored Division Artillery
        • 27th Armored Field Artillery Battalion
        • 68th Armored Field Artillery Battalion
        • 91st Armored Field Artillery Battalion
        • 123rd Armored Ordnance Maintenance Battalion
        • 47th Armored Medical Battalion
        • Military Police Platoon
        • Band

        After the Allied invasion of Sicily, the 1st Armored Division, which was part of the American Fifth Army, invaded mainland Italy. It participated in the attack on the Winter Line in November 1943, flanked the Axis armies in the landings at Anzio, and passed through the city of Rome and pursued the retreating enemy northward until mid-July 1944. At that point, Harmon was replaced by Major General Vernon Prichard, who led the 1st AD for the rest of the war. Three days after Prichard took command, the division was reorganized based on experiences in the North Africa Campaign. [26] The change was drastic: it eliminated the armored and infantry regiments in favor of three separate tank and infantry battalions, disbanded the Supply Battalion, and cut the strength of the division from 14,000 to 10,000. The result of the reorganization was a more flexible and balanced division, with roughly equivalent infantry and tank battalions. These forces could be combined or custom-tailored by the command to meet any situation. The additional infantry strength would prove particularly useful in future campaigns in the largely mountainous combat of the Italian campaign. The division continued in combat to the Po Valley until the German forces in Italy surrendered on 2 May 1945. In June, the division moved to Germany as part of the occupation forces.

        Casualties Edit

        • Total battle casualties:7,096 [27]
        • Killed in action: 1,194 [27]
        • Wounded in action: 5,168 [27]
        • Missing in action: 216 [27]
        • Prisoner of war: 518 [27]

        During the war, the Old Ironsides division captured 41 towns and cities and 108,740 prisoners. 722 division soldiers were awarded the Silver Star and another 908 received the Bronze Star. The division received 5,478 Purple Hearts. Two division soldiers were awarded the Medal of Honor during World War II: Private Nicholas Minue and Second Lieutenant Thomas Weldon Fowler.

        The 1st Armored Division flag returned to the New York Port of Embarkation on 24 April 1946 and was deactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey on 25 April 1946. The component headquarters and units which remained in Germany were retasked and renamed as a component of the United States Constabulary.

        After World War II Edit

        As part of the Korean War buildup of American forces, the 1st Armored Division was reactivated at Fort Hood, Texas on 7 March 1951. The division became one of the first divisions in the Army to integrate black soldiers throughout the ranks, and was also the only combat-ready armored division in the continental United States and the first to receive the M48 Patton tank. Training for nuclear war became a major theme in the mid-1950s. The 1st Armored Division participated in tests of the "Atomic Field Army" at Fort Hood and in Operation Sagebrush, the largest joint maneuver conducted since World War II. The 1st Armored Division moved to its new base of operations at Fork Polk, Louisiana after completing the exercise in February 1956. [28]

        Cuba Edit

        At the end of the 1950s, the Army's focus on a nuclear battlefield waned and it experienced years of reduced budgets. The 1st Armored Division reverted into a training cadre for new inductees after being reduced in size and moved back to Fort Hood.

        In 1962, the 1st Armored Division was brought back to full strength and reorganized. Brigades replaced combat commands and the division's aviation assets doubled. Intense training followed the reorganization. In October 1962 the 1st Armored Division was declared combat-ready just before the Cuban Missile Crisis. The division deployed from Fort Hood, Texas to Fort Stewart in response to the Soviet stationing of missiles in Cuba. The entire operation took 18 days. [28]

        In the following six weeks, the 1st Armored Division conducted live-fire training and amphibious exercises on the Georgia and Florida coasts. One highlight was a visit from President John F. Kennedy on 26 November 1962. Shortly thereafter, tensions eased and the division returned to Ft. Hood.

        Vietnam Edit

        Although the 1st Armored Division did not participate as a division in the Vietnam War, there were two units, Company A, 501st Aviation and 1st Squadron, 1st Cavalry, that served in Vietnam. Both earned Presidential Unit Citations, and 1-1 Cavalry received two Valorous Unit Awards and three Vietnamese Crosses of Gallantry. Neither unit was officially detached from the 1st Armored Division thus veterans of both units may wear the division's patch as a combat patch. In 1967 the 198th Infantry Brigade was formed from three of the division's infantry battalions and deployed from Fort Hood to Vietnam. After the war, two of the three battalions, 1-6 Infantry and 1-52 Infantry, returned to the 1st Armored Division.

        In early April 1968, when rioting broke out in many American cities following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., the 3rd Brigade was deployed on 6 April to assist in restoring order during rioting in Chicago. [29] : 309

        West Germany Edit

        In the early 1970s, American forces withdrew from Vietnam and the Army was heavily restructured: the 1st Armored Division was rumored to be on the list of units to be deactivated. Veterans of the division organized a letter-writing campaign to "save" the 1st Armored Division.

        As part of the Army's post-Vietnam reorganization, the 1st Armored Division was moved to West Germany in 1971 and replaced the 4th Armored Division in the Bavarian city of Ansbach. The Division headquarters remained in Ansbach, with brigade units in the neighboring towns of Bamberg, Illesheim, Fürth (Nuremberg), Schwabach, Katterbach, Crailsheim, Erlangen and Zirndorf for the next twenty years, as part of VII Corps, itself part of NATO's Central Army Group.

        1st Battalion, 51st Infantry (Mech), at Crailsheim, part of the 1st Brigade, was deactivated on 16 June 1984 as a result of the division's conversion to the Division 86 force structure. Under the Division 86 structure, each heavy division decreased by one infantry battalion, while remaining infantry battalions gained one additional rifle company.

        On 16 April 1986, the Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division, was activated in Germany.

        In April 1987, 6th Battalion, 43rd Air Defense Artillery (Patriot) moved to a newly built Urlas Kaserne (located near Bismarck & Katterbach Kaserne) assigned to the 1st Armored Division.

        On 16 November 1987, the 501st Combat Aviation Battalion was deactivated and re-flagged as 2nd Battalion, 1st Aviation Regiment at Katterbach Kaserne, Federal Republic of Germany, under the 1st Armored Division.

        Persian Gulf War Edit

        In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. On 8 November 1990, the 1st Armored Division was alerted for deployment to the Middle East to provide an offensive option should Saddam refuse to withdraw from Kuwait. This alert changed the division's focus, from "building down" in Europe to "building up" in Southwest Asia.

        Division leaders and soldiers began focusing on planning, training and unit deployment. Planning focused on the challenge of logistics, as the division had to be shipped to Saudi Arabia in a logical order to support the buildup for combat operations.

        Commanders and their staff rapidly integrated new equipment into their units to be deployed to the Persian Gulf region. The division also prepared to receive new units: 3rd Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division replaced 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division. Round-out units such as the 312th Support Center (RAOC) composed of reservists from throughout Germany, also joined the division. Other units, such as the 54th and 19th Engineer battalions, the 218th Military Police Company, and the 7th Support Group, joined the 1st Armored Division in Kuwait.

        Units concentrated on preparing vehicles for overseas movement while undergoing individual and unit training, including gunnery, in the few weeks available before deployment. The division qualified 355 tanks and 300 Bradley crews on Tables VII and VIII, conducted division artillery howitzer section gunnery, fired modified Vulcan Table VIII and qualified Stinger and Chaparral crews. Battle drill rehearsals and wargaming seminars were also part of the rigorous training agenda.

        The division transported equipment by rail, wheeled convoy, and rotary-wing self-deployment. These movements unavoidably occurred on short notice or in bad weather, and posed challenges to coordination and logistics. The first trains departed for port the last week of November 1990 and continued to so until the second week of December 1990. Within two months 17,400 soldiers and 7,050 pieces of equipment were moved to Saudi Arabia for Operation Desert Shield/Storm. [30]

        Battle damage assessment Edit

        • 25 Feb: 2 tanks, 25 APC, 9 artillery, 14 ADA, 48 trucks, 314 EPW
        • 26 Feb: 112 tanks, 82 APC, 2 artillery, 2 ADA, 94 trucks, 545 EPW
        • 27 Feb: 186 tanks, 127 APC, 66 artillery, 5 ADA, 118 trucks, 839 EPW
        • 28 Feb: 41 tanks, 60 APC, 15 artillery, 11 ADA, 244 trucks, 281 EPW
        • 1–12 Mar: 99 tanks, 191 APC, 98 artillery, 105 ADA, 879 trucks, 4,707 EPW
        • Total: 440 tanks, 485 APC, 190 artillery, 137 ADA, 1,383 trucks, 6,686 EPW [31]

        Four division soldiers were killed in action and 52 wounded in action during the Gulf War [31] : 232

        The Balkans Edit

        On 18 December 1995, under the command of Major General William L. Nash, the division deployed to northeastern Bosnia as the command and major traoop contributing element of Task Force Eagle, a peace enforcement, multinational unit. The 1st Armored Division returned in late 1996 to Germany.

        In 1999, the unit deployed to Kosovo for Operation Allied Force and Operation Joint Guardian. The unit trained heavily afterwards in the Hohenfels and Grafenwöhr Training Areas in Germany, with realistic OPFOR (Opposition Forces) exercises.

        In 2000, the 1st Armored Division's 1st Brigade Combat Team trained at the Grafenwoehr Training Area (GTA). In February 2000, 1st Armored Division Headquarters announced the closure of military facilities in Bad Kreuznach and its subsequent move to Wiesbaden scheduled for June 2001. The 1st Armored Division trained at HTA and GTA in three separate exercises in March 2001. Ready First participated in Mountain Guardian III at Hohenfels as a mission rehearsal exercise for Kosovo.

        The 1st Armored Division's command and control elements conducted a warfighter exercise in the GTA between 21 March and 17 April 2001. The 1st Armored Division took command of Task Force Falcon in Kosovo as Brigadier General Randal Tieszen accepted the colors from 1st Infantry Division's Brigadier General Ricardo Sanchez. The 1st Armored Division celebrated its 60th birthday at home and abroad in Kosovo on 15 July 2001. Major General George W. Casey, Jr. traveled to Boston Harbor in August 2001 where he connected with Commander Bill Foster of the USS Constitution.

        Iraq Edit

        In the months building up to the March 2003 invasion of Iraq, two battalions of the 1st Armored Division's 3rd Brigade were deployed to support Operation Iraqi Freedom. The 2–70 Armor and 1–41 Infantry battalion task forces augmented the 82nd Airborne Division, the 3rd Infantry Division, and the 101st Airborne Division throughout the campaign to oust Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein. These units spearheaded the U.S. assaults in As Samawah and Karbala and later occupied the southern area of Baghdad. The 1st Battalion, 13th Armor followed shortly behind towards the end of March 2003.

        In May 2003, the division deployed to Iraq and assumed responsibility for Baghdad, under command of Major General Ricardo Sanchez, relieving the 3d Infantry Division. The 1st Brigade, under Colonel Michael Tucker and after July 2003 under Colonel Peter Mansoor, assumed responsibility for the Rusafa and Adhamiya districts of central Baghdad. [32] The division was scheduled to return to Germany in April 2004 but was extended in country an additional 3 months in order to oppose an uprising of Shia militia led by Moqtada Al Sadr. During the extension Task Force 1–37 Armor ("Bandits") fought Sadr's forces in Karbala while Task Force 2–37 AR ("Dukes") along with elements of 2–3 FA ("Gunners") fought in Diwaniya, Sadr City, Al-Kut, and Najaf. Task Force 1–36 IN ("Spartans") became the Combined Joint Task Force 7 Operational Reserve and conducted operations along Route Irish from Baghdad International Airport to the Green Zone in support of the 1st Cavalry Division. Forces from the 2d Brigade fought in Kut. During its 15-month deployment, the division lost 133 soldiers.

        Ready First Edit

        The division's 1st Brigade deployed again to Iraq in January 2006 under the command of Colonel Sean B. MacFarland after months of intensive training in Grafenwöhr and Hohenfels, Germany. Many of the soldiers who fought with units like 1–36 Infantry ("Spartans"), 2–37 Armor ("Iron Dukes"), and 1–37 ("Bandits") during the invasion of Iraq returned for a second tour. Most of the 1st BCT was initially deployed to Northern Iraq in Nineveh province concentrating on the city of Tal' Afar. In May 2006, the main force of the 1st Brigade received orders to move south to the city of Ramadi in volatile Al Anbar Province. [33]

        Since 2003, Al Anbar served as a base of operations for the Sunni insurgency and al Qaeda. Ramadi, its capital, had neither a government nor a police force when the brigade arrived. Most military strategists inside and outside of the Bush administration believed that the war in Anbar had already concluded unsuccessfully. Al Qaeda in Iraq publicly announced Ramadi as the capital of their new caliphate and the city alone averaged more than twenty attacks per day the province was statistically the most dangerous location in the country, and the insurgency enjoyed free rein throughout much of the province. [34]

        Ramadi Edit

        When the 1st Brigade arrived in Ramadi in June 2006 with more than 70 M1 Abrams tanks and 84 Bradley fighting vehicles, many locals believed the brigade was preparing for a Fallujah-style block-by-block clearing assault on the city and many insurgents fled the city. Following Colonel H.R. McMaster's "Clear, Hold, Build" strategy, the brigade developed a plan to isolate the insurgents, deny them sanctuary, and build Iraqi security forces.

        The 1st Brigade moved into some of Ramadi's dangerous neighborhoods and built four of what would eventually become eighteen combat outposts starting in July 2006. The soldiers brought the territory under control and inflicted many casualties on the insurgents. On 24 July, the Al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) launched a counterattack, initiating 24 assaults, each with about 100 fighters, on American positions. The insurgents failed in all of their attacks and lost about 30 men. [35]

        Independence Day Edit

        Simultaneous with combat operations, the brigade worked on the "hold" portion of clear, hold, build. Lieutenant Colonel Tony Deane, commander of Task Force 1-35 Armor, approached Sheik Abdul Sattar Bezia al-Rishawi of the Abu Risha tribe in an attempt to recruit his tribesmen to the police force.

        In his book A Chance in Hell that focuses on the operation in Al Anbar, Jim Michaels wrote that the US had a flawed view on civil government which ignored the tribal history of Iraq. "The tribal system embraced elements of democracy. The sheik may not be elected," wrote Michaels," but nor is he born into his job. Sheiks are generally selected by a group of elders[. ] Throughout history, ignoring the tribes [in Iraq] has never been a smart move. Sheiks have wielded power for thousands of years and survived countless efforts to blunt their influence in the name of modernity." [33] : 89

        To facilitate Sheik Sittar, Colonel MacFarland's deputy, Lieutenant Colonel Jim Lechner, and his police implementation officer, Marine Major Teddy Gates, changed the location for Iraqi Police recruiting. They wanted a more secure location close to Sattar's house, as this would enable them to build a police station north of the Euphrates River in an area where many potential recruits lived. Having already had his father and three brothers killed by AQI, Sattar appreciated the idea. The residents' response was overwhelming by standing in line to serve as IP's at the next recruiting drive.

        In August, the new Jazeera police station north of the river, manned mostly by Abu Ali Jassim tribe members, was attacked and the sheikh of the tribe was killed. AQI hid the sheikh's body so it was not found for several days, a violation of Islam's strict burial rules that call for internment within 24 hours.

        The attack on the station killed several Iraqi police and created many burn casualties. MacFarland offered to evacuate the police to Camp Blue Diamond, an American Army camp outside of Ramadi, while they repaired the station. But the Iraqis refused to abandon their post and instead put their flag back up and resumed patrolling that same day. [36]

        Awakening Edit

        With the locals outraged by AQI's disregard of Islamic funeral laws, the charismatic Sattar stepped forward to continue the push toward working with the Americans. [37] On 9 September 2006, he organized a tribal council, attended by more than 50 sheiks as well as MacFarland, where he officially declared an "Anbar Awakening". It would convene an Awakening Council dedicated to driving the AQI out of Ramadi and establish rule of law and local governance. The Anbar Awakening was realized with Sittar as its leader. McFarland, speaking later about the meeting, said, "I told them that I now knew what it was like to be in Independence Hall on 4 July 1776 when the Declaration of Independence was signed." While attacks remained high through October 2006, the Awakening and Sittar's influence began to spread. The AQI, realized it was losing its influence over the citizens and launched a counterattack on the Sufia tribal area on 25 November. The attack was intended to terrorize and insult the Sufia tribe, though with the 1st BCT's M1A1 tanks reinforcing tribal defenders, the AQI was repelled and the relationship between the Sufia tribe and the 1st Armored Division improved.

        By early 2007, the combination of tribal engagement and combat outposts was defeating AQI's in Ramadi and throughout the province. President George W. Bush, in his 23 January 2007 State of the Union speech referred to Al Anbar as a place "where al Qaeda terrorists have gathered and local forces have begun showing a willingness to fight them." [38]

        "The Gettysburg of this war" Edit

        By February 2007, contact with insurgents dropped almost 70 percent in number since June 2006 as well as decreasing in complexity and effect. By the summer of 2007, fighting in Al Anbar was mostly over. Frederick Kagan, resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, called Al Anbar "the Gettysburg of this war, to the extent that counterinsurgencies can have such turning points," writing "Progress in Anbar and throughout the Sunni community has depended heavily on a skillful balance between military force and political efforts at the local level." [39]

        The tactics, techniques, and procedures used by 1st BCT were groundbreaking at the time but came to serve as the philosophical basis for the surge in Iraq. [40] In nine months, 85 soldiers, sailors, and Marines were killed, and over 500 were wounded.

        Division Headquarters redeploys Edit

        In September 2007, amid a national debate about troop levels in Iraq and, more broadly, about the US strategy in Iraq, the 1st Armored Division Headquarters was re-deployed to Iraq. General David Petraeus' surge strategy was in effect, with major counterinsurgency operations across the country. "This is a pivotal and historic time for the 1st AD, for the forces in Iraq and for the nation," said Brig. Gen. James C. Boozer, a deputy commanding general for 1st AD at the time of the division's deployment. [41] The division began its deployment the same day Petraeus delivered his Report to Congress on the Situation in Iraq, concluding that "the military objectives of the surge are, in large measure, being met."

        The division, commanded by then-Major General Mark Hertling, conducted a relief in place with the 25th Infantry Division and assumed command of Multi-National Division North, headquartered in Tikrit, Iraq, on 28 October 2007, just as MacFarland's Anbar Awakening was pushing AQI out of Anbar. At the time in northern Iraq, enemy attacks averaged 1,800 a month, the Iraqis had little trust in their central government, and the unemployment rate was high.

        Hertling assumed responsibility for all Coalition forces in Northern Iraq. Multi-National Division North was composed of five maneuver brigade combat teams, a combat aviation brigade, a fires brigade, and an engineer brigade. The division had responsibility includes the Iraqi provinces of Ninawa, Kirkuk (formerly at Tamin), Salah ad Din, and Diyala along with Dahuk, and As Sulaymaniyah. The area included the critical cities of Tal Afar, Mosul, Bayji, Tikrit, Kirkuk, Samarra, Balad, Baqubah, Dahuk, and Sulaymaniah. Arbil province remained aligned as a separate Multi-National Division, North-East. The division area of operations included ethnic fault lines between Arabs and Kurds, religious fault lines between Sunni and Shia Muslims, numerous tribal regions, and the complexities involving significant former regime elements.

        The 1st Armored Division immediately applied a mix of lethal and non-lethal counterinsurgency tactics, as maneuver battalions partnered with State Department officials and provincial reconstruction teams. Commanders applied a focused lethality, protecting the Iraqi population while killing insurgents in large volumes. [42]

        The division transferred responsibility to Headquarters 25th Infantry Division on 8 December 2008 and returned to Wiesbaden Army Airfield (later renamed Lucius D. Clay Kaserne) in Germany. [43]

        On 17 April 2013, US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel announced the deployment of elements of the 1st Armored Division headquarters to Jordan in response to the crisis in Syria. The elements from the 1st Armored Division joined forces in Jordan and provided command and control in cooperation with Jordan forces, which was used to establish a joint task force headquarters that provided command and control for chemical weapons response, humanitarian assistance efforts, and stability operations. The 1st Armored Division planners in Jordan are facilitating the exchange of information with the Jordanian Armed Forces. [44]

        Move to Fort Bliss Edit

        In 2005 the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) commission decided to move the 1st Armored Division to Fort Bliss, Texas no later than 2012. As part of the current Army-wide transformation, several division units were deactivated or converted to other units. The 1st Armored Division officially uncased its colors at Fort Bliss on 13 May 2011.

        • 1st Brigade: The 1st Brigade, 1st Armored Division cased its colors at Friedberg, Germany on 20 April 2007, ending 62 years of military presence in Germany. [45] 1st Brigade reactivated and uncased its colors on 27 October 2008. [46] and began reconfiguring as a Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT) after redeployment from Iraq in November 2010. Denoted 1-1AD "Ready First", the 1st BCT, 1st Armored Division deployed to Afghanistan in December 2012. [47] The first female engagement team to deploy from Fort Bliss was trained in 2012 before Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta's order rescinding restrictions on women in combat roles. [48] "Ready First" Brigade converted from a Stryker BCT to an ABCT 20 June 2019. [7]
        • 2nd Brigade: 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division in Baumholder, Germany, remained assigned to USAREUR until 15 July 2009, when it was reflagged as the separate 170th Infantry Brigade. [49] It relocated to the U.S. in 2012. As part of the Grow the Army Plan announced on 19 December 2007, the 170th is one of two infantry brigades to be activated and retained in Germany until 2012 and 2013. (The other brigade is the 172nd Infantry Brigade in Schweinfurt, Germany, which reflagged from 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division on 16 March 2008. [46][50] ) In 2010, the U.S. Army attached the 2nd Brigade, 1st Armored Division to the Brigade Modernization Command, [51] assigning it the evaluation mission previously held by the 5th Brigade, 1st Armored Division, AETF. In 2016, 2nd Brigade moved to the Ready pool for deployment. [52]
        • 3rd Brigade: On 28 March 2008, the 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division (HBCT) deactivated at Fort Riley and reflagged as 2d (Dagger) Brigade, 1st Infantry Division (HBCT). [53] The 3rd Brigade was reactivated as an infantry brigade combat team on 2 July 2009 at Fort Bliss. [54]
        • 4th Brigade: On 4 March 2008, 4th Brigade, 1st Armored Division activated at Fort Bliss as a HBCT and reflagged from the 4th Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division. [55]
        • 5th Brigade: In 2007, a new unit, 5th Brigade, 1st Armored Division, activated at Fort Bliss as an Army evaluation task force. 5th BCT tested the Future Force Warrior system. It evaluated multiple types of spin out equipment and prepared them for fielding to the rest of the Army. 5th Brigade was deactivated in 2010.
        • Aviation Brigade: The Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division deactivated on 7 June 2006 at Fliegerhorst Kaserne, Hanau, Germany and moved to Fort Riley, Kansas to reflag as the modular Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division. [56] The Combat Aviation Brigade, 4th ID was reflagged to CAB, 1st Armored Division. 4–501st Aviation (4th Battalion "Pistoleros", 501st Regiment, Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Armored Division) deployed to Kuwait in November 2012. [47]
        • Engineer Brigade: The Engineer Brigade, 1st Armored Division, the last of its kind in the Army, cased its colors and inactivated at Giessen, Germany on 26 April 2007. [57]
        • Division Artillery: Division Artillery, 1st Armored Division cased its colors and was deactivated at Baumholder, Germany on 1 May 2007. The 1st AD DIVARTY was the last standing division artillery unit in the Army. [58] The DIVARTY reactivated in 2014 at Fort Bliss.

        The division's colors were officially moved from Germany to Fort Bliss on 13 May 2011. [59] On 25 June 2013, Army force restructuring plans were announced. As part of the plan, the division deactivated its 3rd Brigade Combat Team following its 2014 deployment to Afghanistan. The 4th BCT was reflagged as the 3rd Brigade Combat team in April 2015.

        The 1st Armored Division's Sustainment Brigade deployed 200 of its soldiers to Afghanistan on 11 May 2015. [60]

        Operation Freedom's Sentinel Edit

        In late December 2016, ArmyTimes reported that about 1,500 soldiers from the 1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team and about 800 soldiers from the 16th Combat Aviation Brigade to Afghanistan as part of Operation Freedom's Sentinel. [61] In March 2017, Stars and Stripes reported that, according to an Army statement, 200 soldiers from the 1st Sustainment Brigade will deploy throughout Afghanistan to lead logistical operations, particularly providing supply, to support the US counter terrorism mission and Afghan-led operations against the Taliban. [62]

        Operation Inherent Resolve Edit

        In March 2017, Stars and Stripes reported that 400 soldiers from the division's headquarters element will deploy to Iraq in summer 2017, where it led the coalition's ground efforts as part of Operation Inherent Resolve. [62]

        28 Days, 28 Films for Black History Month

        Our chief film critics have chosen essential movies from the 20th century that convey the larger history of black Americans in cinema.

        I t has been almost a year since Barry Jenkins’s “Moonlight” won the Oscar for best picture. This awards season, Jordan Peele’s “Get Out” and Dee Rees’s “Mudbound” have received multiple nominations and accolades, optimistic signs that black filmmakers are receiving more opportunities in the movie industry. Soon these titles will be joined by two of the most anticipated releases of the year: Ryan Coogler’s “Black Panther,” the first Marvel superhero movie from a black director, and Ava DuVernay’s “A Wrinkle in Time,” the first movie with a $100 million budget directed by a black woman.

        The critical and box-office success of “Get Out” and the very existence of big-studio productions like “Black Panther” are good reasons to revisit the remarkable, complex story of black filmmaking in America. For Black History Month, we have selected 28 essential films from the 20th century pertaining to African-American experiences. These aren’t the 28 essential black-themed films, but a calendar of suggested viewing. We imposed a chronological cutoff in an effort to look back at where we were and how we got to here.

        We begin in the 1920s with Oscar Micheaux (1884-1951), a novelist and bold, prolific independent filmmaker. Micheaux along with black directors like Spencer Williams made “race movies,” low-budget films with all-black casts for black audiences (some from white producers). During the Jim Crow era, the color line ran through movies, including into segregated theaters, and most Hollywood films depicting black life were produced by whites, including musicals, like “Cabin in the Sky,” with all-black casts of well-known singers, dancers and musicians. From the early 1930s to the late ’50s, the mainstream industry’s Production Code specifically banned representations of sexual relations between black and white people.

        When African-Americans in Hollywood were not singing or dancing, they were often cast as maids, butlers, porters or other servile, peripheral figures. There are exceptions, including “Imitation of Life,” a 1930s melodrama with a storyline about a black character who “passes” for white, as well as “Intruder in the Dust,” a 1940s parable of white conscience. Both are worth viewing because of the power and integrity of their featured black actors — Louise Beavers, Fredi Washington and Juano Hernandez — who with the humanity of their performances challenge and movingly subvert the mainstream industry’s racism.

        Race movies disappeared shortly after World War II, and soon the mainstream industry turned toward social issues. Yet even as the civil rights movement gathered force, black characters and their experiences were seen through a white lens, often myopically. Consider this sobering fact: Between 1948 (when Micheaux’s last film appeared) and 1969 (when Gordon Parks’s “The Learning Tree” arrived on the big screen), almost no movies directed by African-Americans were released commercially in the United States.

        Our selections for subsequent decades are exclusively the work of black directors. For the later 20th century, we have chosen titles that represent waves and countercurrents: Blaxploitation, the independent film scenes in Los Angeles and New York in the ’70s and ’80s, the flowering of commercial and independent movies in the ’90s. There are comedies and crime stories, historical epics and slices of ordinary life, socially conscious dramas and sublimely silly comedies. Taken together, they do not offer a unified theory of African-Americans in cinema, but a great multiplicity.

        UPI Almanac for Sunday, Feb. 28, 2016

        Today is Sunday, Feb. 28, the 59th day of 2016 with 307 to follow.

        The moon is waning. Morning stars are Mercury and Venus. Evening stars are Mars, Saturn, Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune.

        Those born on this date are under the sign of Pisces. They include French essayist Michel de Montaigne in 1533 journalist and screenwriter Ben Hecht in 1894 chemist and physicist Linus Pauling, twice winner of the Nobel Prize (peace and chemistry), in 1901 movie director Vincente Minnelli in 1903 cartoonist Milton Caniff (Terry and the Pirates, Steve Canyon) in 1907 actor Billie Bird in 1908 actor Zero Mostel in 1915 actor Charles Durning in 1923 Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of Soviet dictator Josef Stalin, in 1926 architect Frank Gehry in 1929 (age 87) actor Gavin MacLeod in 1931 (age 85) Hall of Fame basketball Coach Dean Smith in 1931 dancer Tommy Tune in 1939 (age 77) former race car driver Mario Andretti in 1940 (age 76) musician Brian Jones (Rolling Stones) in 1942 former U.S. Secretary of Energy Steven Chu in 1948 (age 68) actor Bernadette Peters in 1948 (age 68) actor Mercedes Ruehl in 1948 (age 68) newspaper columnist and Nobel laureate Paul Krugman in 1953 (age 63) comedian Gilbert Gottfried in 1955 (age 61) actor John Turturro in 1957 (age 59) actor Rae Dawn Chong in 1961 (age 55) actor Robert Sean Leonard in 1969 (age 47) former NHL player Eric Lindros in 1973 (age 43).

        In 1784, the Methodist Church was chartered by John Wesley.

        In 1844, an explosion rocked the "war steamer" USS Princeton after it test-fired one of its guns. The blast killed or injured a number of top U.S. government officials who were aboard.

        In 1885, the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. was incorporated in New York as a subsidiary of American Bell Telephone.

        In 1935, nylon was invented by DuPont researcher Wallace Carothers.

        In 1942, Japanese forces landed in Java, the last Allied bastion in the Dutch East Indies.

        In 1983, the concluding episode of the long-running television series M*A*S*H drew what was then the largest TV audience in U.S. history.

        In 1986, Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme was assassinated on a street in Stockholm.

        In 1992, a bomb blast blamed on the IRA ripped through a London railway station, injuring at least 30 people and shutting down the British capital's rail and subway system.

        In 1993, federal agents attempting to serve warrants on the Branch Davidian religious cult's compound near Waco, Texas, were met with gunfire that left at least five people dead and 15 injured, and marked the start of a month-and-a-half-long standoff.

        In 1994, NATO was involved in combat for the first time in its 45-year history when four U.S. fighter planes operating under NATO auspices shot down four Serb planes that had violated the U.N. no-fly zone in central Bosnia.

        In 1996, Britain's Prince Charles and Princess Diana agreed to divorce after 15 years of marriage.

        In 2005, at least 125 Iraqi police recruits and others were killed in a suicide bomb attack on a crowd outside a government office south of Baghdad.

        In 2008, Prince Harry, third in line for the British throne, was pulled from the front lines in Afghanistan immediately after word got out that he was on army duty. He had spent 10 weeks in the war zone.

        In 2009, radio broadcasting icon Paul Harvey, who entertained generations of listeners with his news and comments, died. He was 90.

        In 2013, children fare as well with same-sex parents as traditional parents, the American Sociological Association said in a brief filed with the U.S. Supreme Court.

        In 2014, Drought-stricken Southern California was hit by a storm that dropped more rain in one day than had fallen in many months.

        A thought for the day: "Your name is the most important thing you own. Don't ever do anything to disgrace or cheapen it." -- Ben Hogan

        ☐ Day 14

        Frederick Douglass’ birthday on February 14 has been a longstanding traditional day of celebration by Black communities, which also influenced the timing of Black History Month. Born into slavery in 1818, Douglass escaped his enslavement and dedicated his life to fighting for justice and equality. Take a virtual tour of Frederick Douglass National Historic Site in Washington, DC where he lived the last 17 years of his life in view of the US Capitol.

        This Was Brainerd - Feb. 28

        Pine River police suspect foul play was involved in the disappearance of 50-year-old Rachel Anthony from Ultimate Liquors last night. A police office discovered her absence at about 10:30 p.m. It appears she closed the liquor store as the door was found locked and her car, parked outside, was running. Police have no leads.

        (Photo) Steve Nunnink had more to celebrate today than the end of the war with Iraq. The biology and sports medicine teacher has been named 1991 Brainerd Teacher of the Year. Nunnink, who has been teaching for 20 years, the last 16 in Brainerd, is also an assistant high school sports coach.

        Two of the three youngsters – ages 14 and 15 – who vandalized Franklin Junior High by tipping over library bookshelves, breaking 89 windows, breaking furniture and more, were sentenced to the Juvenile Correction Center at Sauk Centre. One of the boys had a lengthy record of vandalism, burglaries and other crimes.

        Fifty men from Aitkin and Crow Wing counties will be called to work under the $1.5 million emergency grant to aid employment in the state's distressed areas. The majority of the men will be employed at Emily, and at McGregor and Hill City in Aitkin county, while 11 men will work on a forestry project north of Brainerd.

        A pulverizing right hand which flattened his opponent in the second round, put Russ Fitzsimmons, 18-year-old Brainerd heavyweight, into the quarterfinals of the National Golden Gloves Tournament in Chicago. Russ has one more bout tonight. If he wins, he'll go back to Chicago next weekend for the semis and finals.

        (Photo) The “Universal Dealer,” an illustrated national journal published by the Portland Cement Co., carries a picture of Brainerd's new 300,000 gallon cement water tower on the cover page of the February 1921 issue. Brainerd's water tower is now made known across the nation.

        Watch the video: Why Does February Only Have 28 Days?